This question is just something I'm wondering about and after googling haven't found a straight. easily understandable answer. I just want to know a straight answer to it. If you can help I'll be greatful!
If a person eats high sugar food, I mean each and every thing he eats is very high in sugar, and the person eats like that and only like that for each meal, can that person get type 2 diabetes just eating like that?
The person is in good shape, not fat or has any belly fat, is toned and neither parents had diabetes.
It might be a stupid question but I need an answer to it so please! I get it's a horrible scenario but I would still apprecaite if you would just tell me what you think will happen.
Edit: I'll just add a bit more here as well, if a person eats like that high sugar, 3 out of 7 days a week and the rest 4 days eats high fat and very low carb, would that change or diminish their chances of getting type 2 diabetes, will that have an effect at all?
asked bytheia_claude0 (0)
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on June 13, 2015
at 08:10 AM
Hi. I am diabetic 2 myself, and beleive me, if this person doesnt try to cut down on sugar, it can become a diabetic. Not everyone does, but i would hate to see this happen down the track. Sugar can do a lot to our bodies, and over the years it can play havoc. I know, it is happening to me at this moment. Please keep of sugar if you can.
on June 07, 2015
at 12:33 PM
Hard to say with 100% certainty, but it sure raises the odds. It would depend on how many AMY1 gene copies you have, what your body does with excess calories, how much excess sugar you consume, and for how long, and what kinds of gut flora you have and what they're doing.
Normally when we consume excess glucose, our bodies will do one of several things: 1) increase metabolic rate so we move more, fidget more, or increase thermogenesis to get rid of them. 2) store them in fat, liver, or muscle cells (this depends on insulin resistance, which depends on how full these organs are), 3) in an emergency case the kidneys will sacrifice themselves to excrete out the excess sugar.
In terms of gut flora, many of the malevolent species will use excess glucose to propagate, so long term this will cause digestion issues.
Now sugar in the form of sucrose is half fructose and half glucose, and we have an enzyme in our saliva called sucrase that cleaves the sucrose molecule in half, releasing free glucose and free fructose once it hits the acidic environment of the stomach.
Fructose in large amounts is harmful because the only organ that can process it is the liver, and in doing so it uses very similar metabolic paths as alcohol, only you won't get a buzz. However, in very large, chronic amounts, fructose will cause much higher glycation (cross linking of proteins to sugar) and so it will cause a lot of damage to random tissues aging you, but it will also tend to cause triglyceride formation, which if not cleared from the liver fast enough will cause fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
If the liver is empty of glycogen, it will in that case, and in that case only convert the fructose into glycogen, but once full, it will switch to making triglycerides, which in chronic cases will get stuck in the liver and cause damage there.
Meanwhile, the glucose portion will circulate in the blood stream, also causing random glycation damage to various organs, so we have a built in mechanism to clear the blood of glucose. This is of course insulin, which is a very old hormone (even yeasts make it.). There are glucose receptors in the pancrease that signal it to release more insulin depending on how much glucose there is in the blood. The more glucose there is, the more insulin is released.
Insulin then signals any cells in muscle, liver, and fat, which has the appropriate GLUT receptors to accept the glucose molecule and dispose of it.
Unfortunately over time these tissues become saturated and can no longer accept extra glucose, that is, they become insulin resistant and no longer express the GLUT receptors. So then, the pancrease releases more and more insulin, over timing causing damage to the pancreas so it can no longer produce enough insulin for normal function, let alone chronic levels that have lead to T2D. Once the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin, you can get into a situation that's closer to T1D and then you have no choice but to inject insulin.. But at this point a lot of damage starts to be caused to the body's tissues, including nerves and eyes, and the kidneys start excreting the excess glucose, damaging themselves in the process, which is what insulin was trying to prevent... This is what you're really asking about.
Basically the liver stores only a small amount of glycogen which is a backup supply for the many parts of the brain and red blood cells since these cells need glucose to live. But the liver does not need much glycogen since it can at any time it senses the blood sugar going low, use gluconeogenesis to break down (catabolize) either free protein from our last meal, or in the worst case from muscle tissue, into glucose.
Muscle cells store glucose in them as a source of fuel in emergencies so we can sprint away from danger. (They'll produce lactic acid, which will then be processed by the liver as another fuel source but that's not important here). Muscle cells can also use free fatty acids as another source of fuel, so we don't need to be constantly consuming many carbs. This is why exercise is important - you can use it to quickly dispose of excess glucose and prevent diabetes, even with a high carb diet.
Of course the obvious answer is to not consume insane amounts of carbs chronically, and to exercise. (This is the way to reset insulin resistance as well - you'd work out fasted and you'd do intermittent fasts, expose yourself to cold in the winter or take ice cold showers/baths (cold thermogenesis) and then you'd do intermitten feasts i.e. carb backloading, or "carb nite".)
So that leaves fat cells. Even these at some point become saturated and can no longer accept glucose for storage and when that happens you have no place left to dispose of glucose no matter how much insulin you throw at the problem and it's game over. But before this happens, fat cells can get bigger and also create more cells, so in most people, they'd tend to at first get fat, then obese, then morbidly obese. However, this doesn't work for everyone, so the people that never get fat, and are always skinny aren't so lucky, they'd get full blown diabetes if they can't dispose of the excess glucose in fat, and get sicker much faster. So this is the answer to the key part of your question.
Yes, a person who was never fat, is currently skinny, didn't have parents who were diabetic (T2D is not a genetic disease anyway), could get type 2 diabetes by simply chronically eating very high elevated sugar at every meal, and not get fat either, and because they didn't get fat, they're even more likely to get type 2 diabetes.