10

votes

What do you know about Leptin resistance?

Answered on August 19, 2014
Created May 26, 2011 at 10:06 PM

Dr. Jack Kruse (on PaleoHacks formerly known as Dr. K and now known as The Quilt) is interviewed at Jimmy Moore's: http://www.thelivinlowcarbshow.com/shownotes/4119/474-dr-jack-kruse-low-carb-neurologist/

I enjoyed the entire podcast and appreciated his thoughts about context in terms of leptin.

Listen to the bit between 37 minutes to 38:54 -- wherein he talks about the importance of increasing carb consumption IN THE RIGHT CONTEXT i.e. after you have solved your leptin resistance via Paleo diet.

So -- how does one:

a) solve leptin resistance problems in your muscles and liver?

b) know when they have solved leptin resistance problems in your muscles and liver?

c) what the next steps are?

98bf2ca7f8778c79cd3f6c962011cfdc

(24286)

on September 07, 2013
at 01:28 AM

Yes my only question was about exercise normalizing liver and muscle leptin resistence issues. You are saying exercise does both? So you will tell us more about this? Is it all exercise or specific? Overall a very good listen. You communicate much better in a less restricted environment. I often struggle to understand your thoughts and ideas here because of your truncated writing style but you were very clear in the podcast. Anyway, good job! Congratulations!

2b2c2e4aa87e9aa4c99cae48e980f70d

(1059)

on June 22, 2011
at 02:31 PM

Dr. K if you paid an author $60 an hour you need your money back. Find out who edits Mike Eades' books. They are clear and concise to the layman. Your author shoud know that "effect" is not a verb, an error you mske repeatedly thoughout your postings when you should be using "affect". Sorry to sound petty but grammatical errors downgrade your very important message. About effect vs. affect, trust me on this, I took on a magazine editor on this subject and we ran it by style manual experts (I think from Univ. Of Chicago) and I was correct. He thanked me by sending me some nice books.

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 07:53 PM

A polymorphism in this gene resulting in a change of leucine 7 to proline in the signal peptide is associated with elevated cholesterol levels, higher alcohol consumption, and may be a risk factor for various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. (provided by RefSeq) How do us non biochemistry types understand this without going to med school? Too late for me at 68.

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 07:50 PM

NPY This gene encodes a neuropeptide that is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes, including cortical excitability, stress response, food intake, circadian rhythms, and cardiovascular function. The neuropeptide functions through G protein-coupled receptors to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulate intracellular calcium levels, and activate potassium channels.

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 07:46 PM

Wean yourself slowly over a month. But replace the energy from sugar you are not going to get with fat and meat. If you don't have any tempting neolithic products around you...it is much easier. But in the office environment, doughnuts and the like abound. Just resist. It is hard, but for your long term survival, kick the sugar and the wheat products. You can do it. It is not like you are the only one out there that has become addicted. Enlist friends to be your sounding board.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 02:35 PM

Exercise in the face of leptin resistance actually makes the problem worse......I promise I will explain it!

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 11:21 AM

altering cravings of the reward centers in the ventral tegmental tract. There is no setpoint and there is no obesity driven by reward. Its driven by a unfettered positive feedback loop and a problem in firing of certain reward tracts. The exact same mechanism occurs in the hypothalamus in cataplexy. And it uses the same modulating neurons. I will cover this in my blog. Its complicated but interesting.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 11:19 AM

Leptin is just the brains energy thermostat.....it tells it what the overall energy status is for the animal. If that thermostat is not working......for any reason......with more carbs introduced into ones diet it continues to drive NPY elevation and causes the animal to crave more of what drives NPY......it becomes a positive feedback loop. No other macronutrient is wired that way. Moreover this wiring is tied directly to sleep in the lateral hypothalamus. The key to stopping the positive feedback loop is fixing the leptin receptor. That immediately changes the perception of taste by

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 11:15 AM

here is some insight why I dont agree with Stephen......The taste of food at the brain level is a sensory compeonent that occurs through three cranial nerve. These sensations only allow the brain to have an idea of what is coming to the gut for the engine to use (liver) Stephen talks of food rewards but guess what......there is no neurotransmitters that effect the dopaminergic tracts in the lateral hypothalamus for fats or protein. Only for carbs. That neuro modulator is Neuro peptide Y. When you eat carbs....NPY goes through the roof in the brain regardless of leptin status.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:27 AM

i also have theories about minerals (and for me, hence, salt) and food cravings, but like you said, I wish i had studied biochemistry for the last 4 years.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:19 AM

and maybe even allow some minor leeway with grains.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:16 AM

yup, study controls is very much what i was getting at. I've made it a point since childhood to make all my food as delicious as humanly possible, and the only time I've had (extremely minor) weight issues was when i lived off of baguettes and mustard in france (i was broke) and that year i mistakenly tried to be a vegetarian (fail). Having well abused my body in realms outside of food, I also think that ample appropriate fats (in my case, butter and animal fat) and nutrient rich food (high quality meats and fresh veg/fruit) trump concerns over some sugar

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:02 AM

More to the point, obesity is definitely exacerbated but nutritional deficiencies. They all play into metabolism and keeping the body healthy. And it is probably caused by leptin resistance. Here is what Stephan isn't acknowledging. Just because someone has a strong preference for something (pizza tastes great, broccoli tastes crap in comparison. One is rewarding the other isn't) doesn't mean that they are going to overeat it. None of his studies control for leptin resistance, I think leptin resistance enables "overeating" in the first place.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:59 AM

when I was 20 I would eat like 1700 calories a day worth of junk food. It was tummy but it wasn't so rewarding that I just craved it so much that I couldn't stop eating. I think that something has to get dysregulated first, but that's just my theory. As for nutrients I always had that hunch too. It seems to make sense, like vegetarians craving meat. I don't know how much evidence there is but I agree that it is a good guess as to part of the equation.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:56 AM

Yes I think that you nailed it that hyperpalatable is insufficient to describe what actually happens. The underlying mechanisms would be food reward, a psychological phenomenon that produces a strong desire to experience it again and this becomes addictive. Hyperpalatability refers to the attempt to mix as many difference rewarding elements of food as potently as possible to attempt to maximize reward. As Stephan just posted. http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/ Attempting to maximize general palatability isn't necessarily going to produce food reward and addiction. Heck when I was 20 I

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:54 AM

to find some real nourishment? Anyways, thats a total armchair theory, but on a "gut level" (sorry) it kinda makes sense to me.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:53 AM

i have no significant scientific/medical background, but i do have a hunch that obesity has a lot to do with nutritional starvation. Malabsorption either through lack of proper fats to aid with absorption of nutrients, lack of those nutrients in sufficient quantities to begin with or nutritional interference from immunity irritating substances like gluten or some kind of Bermuda Triangle combination of all three. If your body is not getting what it needs nutritionally wouldn't it make sense that it would leech from your own tissues (bones, muscle) and elevate leptin in order to try to get you

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:43 AM

will be lost, as they are just too subtle. So i have a hard time believing in the idea that research on hyperpalatability doesn't have too many variables.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:41 AM

your palate easily becomes accustomed to one flavor. So, in calling something "hyperpalatable" to the American palate, you might as well say, overly sweetened, overly "texturally adjusted" whatever chemical it takes to do that and so forth... so that in the end hyperpalatable becomes something of a meaningless term referring more to the potential adulteration of the food than it does to the internal biological reaction. Much in the same way a great wine's subtleties can increasingly be only appreciated by a better palate. For people used to big bodied, overextracted wines, these subtle flavors

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:41 AM

"hyperpalatability" is an issue for me as term. As someone whose job it has been to develop a palate for wine and food tasting over the course of the last 10 years or so (i know, poor me), i've really come to understand how warped the american palate is. ::gives Robert Parker the stink eye:: hyperpalatability to me seems to implicate "deliciousness" (in other words, favorable mental impression of the desirability of that food) in itself as an issue. I find this extremely hard to accept. What I have found through regular tastings and discussion of flavors with my debauched co-workers was that

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:10 AM

yeah you did! we're friends already on FB! I'm the b/w pic of the kid riding the tricycle. I figured if you got sick of Paleo and left PH I could still enjoy your sense of humor. :) Too bad your question about the narrative of Paleo got so dogged. I thought it was a good one.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on May 27, 2011
at 03:44 AM

Tartare, I haven't received your FB request yet. My name is listed as "Thomas Moe Seay" on there. http://www.facebook.com/entheogens

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 03:24 AM

I'm particularly confused about the role of elevated leptin. You can produce obesity well enough on an "isocaloric" diet if you screw the receptors up enough, but apparently just the action on the receptor is a factor too. I think I remember something about leptin not being able to get past the blood brain barrier efficiently and building up in the blood stream. I simply don't think that even hyperpalatability produces the kind of eating it would take to cause any substantial leptin resistance just from the action of leptin on the receptor, it's sure a factor once people are already obese.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 03:20 AM

It is basically to keep the fat mass there. The adipose tissue secretes leptin proportionate to the amount of adipose tissue there is, and if there was absolutely no leptin resistance we would never store fat for anything. We would have like no % body fat, so we need a degree of leptin resistance to store some fat. But with the modern environment and the brilliant idea to extract the oils from seeds and put them in food we have effectively distorted the natural functioning, as Dr. Quilt mentioned the receptor sensitivity is way far gone in the case of obesity.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 02:06 AM

i'm really fascinated by the idea that adipose tissue releases signals that keeps packing on more fat. I think i find it so interesting because it seems to run contrary to my long held notions that the body is constantly trying to equalize itself or bring itself back to health if it can. So i guess I just don't get why the body would sabotage itself like that. Seasonal advantage to weight gain? It is complicated.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:57 AM

My CRP is 0.1 and I'm super lean. I sit too much though, heh. Working on that.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:56 AM

It's all so complex that I usually simplif things by saying "look here one way that this happens, I bet there's more too if we just look", and that gets people's attention. This stuff makes me want to have been spending the last 4 years learning biochemistry. Actually maybe not, psychology is my thing, but it's all incredibly rewarding and powerful, probably much more so for those with the raw biological knowledge to get the whole picture, or as much of the whole picture in the palm of their hands. Long story short, inflammation done it. Amongst other things but that's the main enabler.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:55 AM

It's all so complex that I usually simply things by saying "look here one way that this happens, I bet there's more too if we just look", and that gets people's attention. This stuff makes me want to have been spending the last 4 years learning biochemistry. Actually maybe not, psychology is my thing, but it's all incredibly rewarding and powerful, probably much more so for those with the raw biological knowledge to get the whole picture, or as much of the whole picture in the palm of their hands. Long story short, inflammation done it. My CRP is 0.1 and I'm super lean. I sit too much though.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:45 AM

i think much of what he says about leptin is close to correct.....but he never talks about what happens at the brain level. And that is where the rubber meets the road for clinical medicine.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:43 AM

SOCS3 is but one way we become leptin resistant. this pathway is driven by IL6 TNF alpha NFkappa beta and ALE's from PUFA's. This is why you hear me constantly talk about omega 6/3 index and ultra sensitive CRP as biomarkers. This is not the only way one become resistant to leptin. Most people think leptin is about high or low......its not. Its about what happens at the receptor level. And that is quite complex.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:32 AM

This is an excellent interview. Plenty of insights into the world of medicine. I'm more sympathetic to old and erroneous paradigms now.

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:13 AM

Jimmy's servers are probably workin overtime.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:12 AM

Thomas I'm sending you and Dr. K. FB requests.

667f6c030b0245d71d8ef50c72b097dc

(15976)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:41 AM

It's not that I'm a fan of Byron. Just saying that he's been shouting leptin for quite some time. He hawks all his product, agreed. Ipso facto what he says is not right? I will not agree to that. Besides, my point was only that nothing you said was new at all. Leptin before insulin as society's main concern? Ok fine no problem.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:23 AM

added you as a friend on FB too.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:19 AM

As pretty healthy going into "paleo" I've been finding eliminating gluten has actually been the most helpful thing for me, but going low carb has been debatable. My issue is that I've never been crazy about "paleo" carbs, not even white potatoes really, so I go low carb by palate more than plan. I'm going to start playing with cycling carbs into my diet, as I still maintain variety is important for optimal health.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:15 AM

here i was think you were calling yourself "The Quilt" because of that little green icon thingy on Paleohacks. Great show, Dr. K. Enjoyed it very, very much. Looking forward to learning more about a few points you made. I think the point about paleolithic diet working up until a point and then people maybe needing to switch it up a bit is pretty great too. Speaks back to what Thomas was saying about his frustrations with "paleo narrative".

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:09 AM

Byron Richards is not a clinician. He is an author and a supplement hawk. I treat people. I eradicate leptin resistance one patient at a time.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:07 AM

Each one will be explained by the subsequent blogs. As you read the more you will learn. The more you learn the more you will understand why people get confused. Because they know bits and pieces but dont understand how it fits together. Kinda like buying a ferrari by mail order getting all the parts and then having to figure out how to assemble it so you can drive it. The leptin post that will be blog one will cover a specific part of the leptin story that I think confuses many. Once I explain it I also tell you the questions I ask of the patients to check their sensitivity as they go.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:04 AM

Thomas I think when you see my thesis laid out you will get it. I shared it with Dexter, Jimmy Moore Robb Wolf and others and quite frankly they said it was too GCBC like in how deep I went into the science. So I rewrote the damn thing the last two weeks. I had an author friend of mine edit it for 60 bucks an hour because this document that I call "The Quilt" will lay out my thesis. Each blog will add a piece to this skeleton document. It will grow horizontally and vertically. The original document is not short. It wont be in blog form. Its a treatise that give you 30 levees to live by

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on May 26, 2011
at 11:10 PM

I agree and have said the same thing! Pretty soon people are going to start saying "everyone says that everyone says the same thing about leptin ..."

93f44e8673d3ea2294cce085ebc96e13

(10502)

on May 26, 2011
at 10:59 PM

The interview went well -- fits right into my thoughts about Paleo Diet as a meta-rule.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 26, 2011
at 10:29 PM

in a week I will show you exactly how to do it......at www.jackkruse.com Not live yet but as promised I will help you if I can.

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5 Answers

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Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:55 AM

Awesome! Jimmy's site is being lame right now so I haven't listened yet.

I already knew about leptin resistance for the most part, although I am always revising exactly what I believe like with the carb thing. Dr. Quilt and I agree on many points although I suspect that I will learn plenty more once I listen. The thing is that leptin is an incredibly slippery issue. If someone hasn't looked deeply enough into the issue they're going to be mightily confused. Some people think that since elevated leptin produces leptin resistance, and in fact you need elevated leptin to produce leptin resistance that leptin resistance is the effect and not the cause of obesity. Compound that with the fact that adipose tissue secretes the cytokine Il-6 which increases SOCS-3 expression in the hypothalamus and causes leptin resistance, it all seems plausible. But you don't need any adipose tissue at all to elevate your leptin levels or your Il-6 or CRP. That's the thing about metabolic syndrome. Every effect in metabolic syndrome acts as a cause in worsening and perpetuating the metabolic syndrome, and one day one finds oneself at 300 pounds and is flabbergasted, hungry, and looking for answers.

The mechanisms that raise systemic inflammation in the body do not need adipose tissue or leptin resistance to arise, they can be produced by a disequilibrium of polyunsaturated fats, wheat lectins, nutrient deficiencies, endotoxemia, and plenty of other things. Inflammation will increases Il-6 and c-reactive protein and this can cause leptin resistance prior to obesity http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16582918 Sugar also raises leptin quite a bit, triglycerides can interfere with leptin signaling and there is just a lot of things that the paleo diet remedies that help things. I suppose the tendency to eat addictive foods to excess like Whole Health Source has been talking about plays a role, although I think that leptin resistance likely plays a role in that. They tend to be inextricable from each other so it's hard to tell.

Basically once metabolic syndrome gets a foothold we gain some weight, that fat makes things worse, and everything causes everything in a horrible downward spiral of death and doom. I'm not going to ramble about the issue here and I'm not particularly knowledgeable with the nuts and bolts, but I will say that there are definite things that people can do, but it takes some time to get everything right so they can lose weight and keep it off.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:41 AM

"hyperpalatability" is an issue for me as term. As someone whose job it has been to develop a palate for wine and food tasting over the course of the last 10 years or so (i know, poor me), i've really come to understand how warped the american palate is. ::gives Robert Parker the stink eye:: hyperpalatability to me seems to implicate "deliciousness" (in other words, favorable mental impression of the desirability of that food) in itself as an issue. I find this extremely hard to accept. What I have found through regular tastings and discussion of flavors with my debauched co-workers was that

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:56 AM

It's all so complex that I usually simplif things by saying "look here one way that this happens, I bet there's more too if we just look", and that gets people's attention. This stuff makes me want to have been spending the last 4 years learning biochemistry. Actually maybe not, psychology is my thing, but it's all incredibly rewarding and powerful, probably much more so for those with the raw biological knowledge to get the whole picture, or as much of the whole picture in the palm of their hands. Long story short, inflammation done it. Amongst other things but that's the main enabler.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:43 AM

will be lost, as they are just too subtle. So i have a hard time believing in the idea that research on hyperpalatability doesn't have too many variables.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:32 AM

This is an excellent interview. Plenty of insights into the world of medicine. I'm more sympathetic to old and erroneous paradigms now.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:55 AM

It's all so complex that I usually simply things by saying "look here one way that this happens, I bet there's more too if we just look", and that gets people's attention. This stuff makes me want to have been spending the last 4 years learning biochemistry. Actually maybe not, psychology is my thing, but it's all incredibly rewarding and powerful, probably much more so for those with the raw biological knowledge to get the whole picture, or as much of the whole picture in the palm of their hands. Long story short, inflammation done it. My CRP is 0.1 and I'm super lean. I sit too much though.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:53 AM

i have no significant scientific/medical background, but i do have a hunch that obesity has a lot to do with nutritional starvation. Malabsorption either through lack of proper fats to aid with absorption of nutrients, lack of those nutrients in sufficient quantities to begin with or nutritional interference from immunity irritating substances like gluten or some kind of Bermuda Triangle combination of all three. If your body is not getting what it needs nutritionally wouldn't it make sense that it would leech from your own tissues (bones, muscle) and elevate leptin in order to try to get you

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 07:53 PM

A polymorphism in this gene resulting in a change of leucine 7 to proline in the signal peptide is associated with elevated cholesterol levels, higher alcohol consumption, and may be a risk factor for various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. (provided by RefSeq) How do us non biochemistry types understand this without going to med school? Too late for me at 68.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 03:24 AM

I'm particularly confused about the role of elevated leptin. You can produce obesity well enough on an "isocaloric" diet if you screw the receptors up enough, but apparently just the action on the receptor is a factor too. I think I remember something about leptin not being able to get past the blood brain barrier efficiently and building up in the blood stream. I simply don't think that even hyperpalatability produces the kind of eating it would take to cause any substantial leptin resistance just from the action of leptin on the receptor, it's sure a factor once people are already obese.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:19 AM

and maybe even allow some minor leeway with grains.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 02:06 AM

i'm really fascinated by the idea that adipose tissue releases signals that keeps packing on more fat. I think i find it so interesting because it seems to run contrary to my long held notions that the body is constantly trying to equalize itself or bring itself back to health if it can. So i guess I just don't get why the body would sabotage itself like that. Seasonal advantage to weight gain? It is complicated.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:43 AM

SOCS3 is but one way we become leptin resistant. this pathway is driven by IL6 TNF alpha NFkappa beta and ALE's from PUFA's. This is why you hear me constantly talk about omega 6/3 index and ultra sensitive CRP as biomarkers. This is not the only way one become resistant to leptin. Most people think leptin is about high or low......its not. Its about what happens at the receptor level. And that is quite complex.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:59 AM

when I was 20 I would eat like 1700 calories a day worth of junk food. It was tummy but it wasn't so rewarding that I just craved it so much that I couldn't stop eating. I think that something has to get dysregulated first, but that's just my theory. As for nutrients I always had that hunch too. It seems to make sense, like vegetarians craving meat. I don't know how much evidence there is but I agree that it is a good guess as to part of the equation.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 11:21 AM

altering cravings of the reward centers in the ventral tegmental tract. There is no setpoint and there is no obesity driven by reward. Its driven by a unfettered positive feedback loop and a problem in firing of certain reward tracts. The exact same mechanism occurs in the hypothalamus in cataplexy. And it uses the same modulating neurons. I will cover this in my blog. Its complicated but interesting.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:54 AM

to find some real nourishment? Anyways, thats a total armchair theory, but on a "gut level" (sorry) it kinda makes sense to me.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:02 AM

More to the point, obesity is definitely exacerbated but nutritional deficiencies. They all play into metabolism and keeping the body healthy. And it is probably caused by leptin resistance. Here is what Stephan isn't acknowledging. Just because someone has a strong preference for something (pizza tastes great, broccoli tastes crap in comparison. One is rewarding the other isn't) doesn't mean that they are going to overeat it. None of his studies control for leptin resistance, I think leptin resistance enables "overeating" in the first place.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:56 AM

Yes I think that you nailed it that hyperpalatable is insufficient to describe what actually happens. The underlying mechanisms would be food reward, a psychological phenomenon that produces a strong desire to experience it again and this becomes addictive. Hyperpalatability refers to the attempt to mix as many difference rewarding elements of food as potently as possible to attempt to maximize reward. As Stephan just posted. http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/ Attempting to maximize general palatability isn't necessarily going to produce food reward and addiction. Heck when I was 20 I

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 11:19 AM

Leptin is just the brains energy thermostat.....it tells it what the overall energy status is for the animal. If that thermostat is not working......for any reason......with more carbs introduced into ones diet it continues to drive NPY elevation and causes the animal to crave more of what drives NPY......it becomes a positive feedback loop. No other macronutrient is wired that way. Moreover this wiring is tied directly to sleep in the lateral hypothalamus. The key to stopping the positive feedback loop is fixing the leptin receptor. That immediately changes the perception of taste by

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:57 AM

My CRP is 0.1 and I'm super lean. I sit too much though, heh. Working on that.

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:13 AM

Jimmy's servers are probably workin overtime.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 11:15 AM

here is some insight why I dont agree with Stephen......The taste of food at the brain level is a sensory compeonent that occurs through three cranial nerve. These sensations only allow the brain to have an idea of what is coming to the gut for the engine to use (liver) Stephen talks of food rewards but guess what......there is no neurotransmitters that effect the dopaminergic tracts in the lateral hypothalamus for fats or protein. Only for carbs. That neuro modulator is Neuro peptide Y. When you eat carbs....NPY goes through the roof in the brain regardless of leptin status.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:27 AM

i also have theories about minerals (and for me, hence, salt) and food cravings, but like you said, I wish i had studied biochemistry for the last 4 years.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on May 27, 2011
at 03:20 AM

It is basically to keep the fat mass there. The adipose tissue secretes leptin proportionate to the amount of adipose tissue there is, and if there was absolutely no leptin resistance we would never store fat for anything. We would have like no % body fat, so we need a degree of leptin resistance to store some fat. But with the modern environment and the brilliant idea to extract the oils from seeds and put them in food we have effectively distorted the natural functioning, as Dr. Quilt mentioned the receptor sensitivity is way far gone in the case of obesity.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:41 AM

your palate easily becomes accustomed to one flavor. So, in calling something "hyperpalatable" to the American palate, you might as well say, overly sweetened, overly "texturally adjusted" whatever chemical it takes to do that and so forth... so that in the end hyperpalatable becomes something of a meaningless term referring more to the potential adulteration of the food than it does to the internal biological reaction. Much in the same way a great wine's subtleties can increasingly be only appreciated by a better palate. For people used to big bodied, overextracted wines, these subtle flavors

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 05:16 AM

yup, study controls is very much what i was getting at. I've made it a point since childhood to make all my food as delicious as humanly possible, and the only time I've had (extremely minor) weight issues was when i lived off of baguettes and mustard in france (i was broke) and that year i mistakenly tried to be a vegetarian (fail). Having well abused my body in realms outside of food, I also think that ample appropriate fats (in my case, butter and animal fat) and nutrient rich food (high quality meats and fresh veg/fruit) trump concerns over some sugar

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 07:50 PM

NPY This gene encodes a neuropeptide that is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes, including cortical excitability, stress response, food intake, circadian rhythms, and cardiovascular function. The neuropeptide functions through G protein-coupled receptors to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulate intracellular calcium levels, and activate potassium channels.

2
667f6c030b0245d71d8ef50c72b097dc

(15976)

on May 26, 2011
at 11:03 PM

That's the thing, pat: every person out there says Leptin is the problem! But no one ever says what to do. It's always the same old story: whole body fat releases leptin so the more fat you have the more should release and thus you're not hungry and you lose that fat. But then of course there are the leptin receptors and everyone says well the receptors have lost sensitivity like for insulin and thus even with sky high amounts of leptin, your Body isn't "hearing" it. Fairly straight forward. Byron Richards has been saying this for years. Even Taubes acknowledges it. But no one can figure out what to do.

I'd love to see what the big reveal from the good doctor is

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:45 AM

i think much of what he says about leptin is close to correct.....but he never talks about what happens at the brain level. And that is where the rubber meets the road for clinical medicine.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:09 AM

Byron Richards is not a clinician. He is an author and a supplement hawk. I treat people. I eradicate leptin resistance one patient at a time.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on May 26, 2011
at 11:10 PM

I agree and have said the same thing! Pretty soon people are going to start saying "everyone says that everyone says the same thing about leptin ..."

667f6c030b0245d71d8ef50c72b097dc

(15976)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:41 AM

It's not that I'm a fan of Byron. Just saying that he's been shouting leptin for quite some time. He hawks all his product, agreed. Ipso facto what he says is not right? I will not agree to that. Besides, my point was only that nothing you said was new at all. Leptin before insulin as society's main concern? Ok fine no problem.

1
Be4b60059db3511771303de1613ecb67

(1137)

on May 27, 2011
at 06:18 PM

I really enjoyed the podcast, and I look forward to more info. I seriously need all the help I can get regarding inflammation and leptin. I've been at this for a while, and no matter how much I tweak my eating and exercise doing Paleo/Primal, I cannot seem to lose a significant amount of weight. Thanks Dr Kruse, I look forward to your blog.

1
77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on May 26, 2011
at 11:30 PM

Dr. Kruse is the man. I was born in Nashville, still have family there. Need to check him out next time I'm down there. I really liked the point he made about the need for different diets for people based upon context. This is a good point and one that differentiates him from much of the Low Carbers. I could imagine these types of broadcasts turning into a Low-Car love-fest, but Dr. Kruse set himself apart politely on this point. Would like to know more about what these different dietary approaches look like in practice, so I'll read his books and look forward to his website going live. I also liked what he said about the relationship between medicine and research science. If X is true for 99.90 percent of the population, what if I belong to that .01 percent.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:15 AM

here i was think you were calling yourself "The Quilt" because of that little green icon thingy on Paleohacks. Great show, Dr. K. Enjoyed it very, very much. Looking forward to learning more about a few points you made. I think the point about paleolithic diet working up until a point and then people maybe needing to switch it up a bit is pretty great too. Speaks back to what Thomas was saying about his frustrations with "paleo narrative".

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:23 AM

added you as a friend on FB too.

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 01:12 AM

Thomas I'm sending you and Dr. K. FB requests.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on May 27, 2011
at 03:44 AM

Tartare, I haven't received your FB request yet. My name is listed as "Thomas Moe Seay" on there. http://www.facebook.com/entheogens

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:19 AM

As pretty healthy going into "paleo" I've been finding eliminating gluten has actually been the most helpful thing for me, but going low carb has been debatable. My issue is that I've never been crazy about "paleo" carbs, not even white potatoes really, so I go low carb by palate more than plan. I'm going to start playing with cycling carbs into my diet, as I still maintain variety is important for optimal health.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:07 AM

Each one will be explained by the subsequent blogs. As you read the more you will learn. The more you learn the more you will understand why people get confused. Because they know bits and pieces but dont understand how it fits together. Kinda like buying a ferrari by mail order getting all the parts and then having to figure out how to assemble it so you can drive it. The leptin post that will be blog one will cover a specific part of the leptin story that I think confuses many. Once I explain it I also tell you the questions I ask of the patients to check their sensitivity as they go.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on May 27, 2011
at 12:04 AM

Thomas I think when you see my thesis laid out you will get it. I shared it with Dexter, Jimmy Moore Robb Wolf and others and quite frankly they said it was too GCBC like in how deep I went into the science. So I rewrote the damn thing the last two weeks. I had an author friend of mine edit it for 60 bucks an hour because this document that I call "The Quilt" will lay out my thesis. Each blog will add a piece to this skeleton document. It will grow horizontally and vertically. The original document is not short. It wont be in blog form. Its a treatise that give you 30 levees to live by

Medium avatar

(5136)

on May 27, 2011
at 04:10 AM

yeah you did! we're friends already on FB! I'm the b/w pic of the kid riding the tricycle. I figured if you got sick of Paleo and left PH I could still enjoy your sense of humor. :) Too bad your question about the narrative of Paleo got so dogged. I thought it was a good one.

2b2c2e4aa87e9aa4c99cae48e980f70d

(1059)

on June 22, 2011
at 02:31 PM

Dr. K if you paid an author $60 an hour you need your money back. Find out who edits Mike Eades' books. They are clear and concise to the layman. Your author shoud know that "effect" is not a verb, an error you mske repeatedly thoughout your postings when you should be using "affect". Sorry to sound petty but grammatical errors downgrade your very important message. About effect vs. affect, trust me on this, I took on a magazine editor on this subject and we ran it by style manual experts (I think from Univ. Of Chicago) and I was correct. He thanked me by sending me some nice books.

0
C2502365891cbcc8af2d1cf1d7b0e9fc

(2437)

on May 27, 2011
at 06:48 PM

I love the low carb message. But I seemm so addicted to sugar, I just don't know how I'll ever get started.

Here's the wikipedia article

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on May 27, 2011
at 07:46 PM

Wean yourself slowly over a month. But replace the energy from sugar you are not going to get with fat and meat. If you don't have any tempting neolithic products around you...it is much easier. But in the office environment, doughnuts and the like abound. Just resist. It is hard, but for your long term survival, kick the sugar and the wheat products. You can do it. It is not like you are the only one out there that has become addicted. Enlist friends to be your sounding board.

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