10

votes

How Do We Keep Our Mitochondria Healthy?

Answered on September 12, 2014
Created October 17, 2011 at 9:47 PM

We all seem to be supplementing with magnesium (in probably a low-phytate intestinal environment), which is necessary for optimal mitochondrial function, so we're all pretty much set there.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1172515/

I think manganese deficiency is possible with a paleo diet, especially for those eating VLC or ZC. Manganese superoxide dismutase mitigates mitochondrial ROS production.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/tj3116u384501826/
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XMSY199202000.htm

100g of raspberries actually has more manganese than 100g of liver, which has quite a lot more manganese than a steak. If you're avoiding berries and other fruit, it's probably wise to get manganese from bivalves of some sort or to find a bioavailable supplement like manganese picolinate. I think it's safe to assume that the food supply is far more deficient in manganese than what would be encountered by a human in the wild. The bioavailability of manganese from high-phytate nuts is questionable as well.

The entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria is rate-limited primarily by CPT1, which is an enzyme that transfers partially oxidized fatty acids toward the mitochondrial matrix. It requires carnitine to do this, which just about all of us should be manufacturing sufficient quantities of given our (presumably) high-meat (and thus high lysine/methionine) diets.


Anyway, are there any other nutrients we should be ensuring that we consume in adequate amounts so that our mitochondria are humming along?

Edit: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098299705000415 Looks like adequate iron and zinc (no, really) are needed for optimal mitochondrial function as well as biotin and B5.

Edit 2: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/managing-your-mitochondria-nutrients-and-supplements/ MDA has a post today about this subject that seems to pretty much be in line with what's been said.

7841848bd0c27c64353c583fb7971242

(7275)

on August 19, 2012
at 05:26 PM

I love the taste of natto.

5ef574d7893bc816ec52e04139e9bc09

(6097)

on May 04, 2012
at 08:11 PM

OK, they're safe via knowurl.com

5ef574d7893bc816ec52e04139e9bc09

(6097)

on May 04, 2012
at 08:01 PM

^ why post shortened links? now I'm just hesitant to click.

3864f9a2af09b1b447c7963058650a34

(3703)

on October 26, 2011
at 02:09 AM

lol!!! u guys r gross...

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 26, 2011
at 01:17 AM

Oh Doctor. You're bedside manner is very, very interesting. LOL You need to get Chris Rock to endorse your blog...

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on October 26, 2011
at 12:29 AM

Natto is like eating ass......but if ass is good for me.....I am all about tossing salad.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 25, 2011
at 06:48 AM

http://goo.gl/ri2An. Its 100mg and I take 30 per day, so this bottle is for a year. This is great product. You also have 10g on pure bulk: http://goo.gl/J1VVF. There is even recipe how to mix it with coconut oil.

D5cde8031564f905260ce9aa7a1f5e2c

(1170)

on October 24, 2011
at 06:34 PM

Majkinetor, where are you getting the Jarrow CoQ10 forumula for $20/yr?

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 19, 2011
at 06:48 AM

Those are NOT supraphysioloogical doses. In first 20 - 25 years of your life, the levels of Q were higher then those you will get with CoQ10 supplements.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 10:55 PM

Yeah, it's not the cost that I'm worried about, it's the supraphysiological doses.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 09:41 PM

Aging and nutrition, this is good review. Interestingly, it contains topic about carbohydrate malabsorption in elderly :) http://www.ajcn.org/content/72/2/529S.full

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 09:09 PM

This is also interesting: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7g13k12nh277767/ Vitamin E seem to help, there are bunch of papers on the same topic. It will damage prostate 17% tho :P

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 08:53 PM

For instance: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w02/aging.html. Similar is true for bunch of those i.e. http://ageing.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/1/34.short http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC424123/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC437077/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098299705000415

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 08:37 PM

Who knows. I wouldn't bet on it anyway. Its not that expensive, especially if you order it from USA - Jarrow formula Q Absrob with 100mg costs around $20 for a year. Age related malnutrition is probably the cause. Most vitamins do become malabsorbed with age. And out of bunch of those that R needed to make Q, only 1 can fail for Q to fail (the law of the minimum).

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:52 PM

I wonder if it's not a natural process for us to produce less as we age and that it's simply the result of malnutrition over time. As such, I wonder if a hunter-gatherer would produce roughly the same amount throughout their lives, and thus we eating a paleo diet wouldn't necessarily need to supplement.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:49 PM

Yeah, I don't mind the taste at all. Sushi chefs always marvel at the fact that I order it on purpose.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:48 PM

Dragonfly: I think it's a good idea to maximize our muscle mitochondria density as soon as we address any possible underlying nutrition issues. I think it greatly enhances carb tolerance if nothing else.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:49 PM

BTW, I don't think that fluoride is that much of an issue with green tea, unless you drink few litters per day.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:49 PM

Use hi quality white tea instead green. It doesn't have that much fluoride as buds are harvested which don't have time to collect it. You could also use EGCG instead.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:47 PM

I forgot to mention that it looks like black chocolate works similarly to exercise. http://www.newser.com/story/102618/eat-chocolate-live-longer.html

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:38 PM

http://www.springerlink.com/content/vk16828n3gpu135l/fulltext.html

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:35 PM

To put dietary CoQ10 intake into perspective, one pound of sardines, two pounds of beef, or two and one half pounds of peanuts, provide 30 mg of CoQ10

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:33 PM

From http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/coenzq10.html

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:33 PM

his complex, 17 step process, requiring at least seven vitamins (vitamin B2 - riboflavin, vitamin B3 - niacinamide, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and pantothenic acid) and several trace elements, is, by its nature, highly vulnerable. Karl Folkers argues that suboptimal nutrient intake in man is almost universal and that there is subsequent secondary impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis. This would mean that average or "normal" levels of CoQ10 are really suboptimal and the very low levels observed in advanced disease states represent only the tip of a deficiency "ice berg"

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:32 PM

It will definitely help. However, CoQ10 is thermally labile. Looking for high mitochondrial sources might help. CoQ10 is expeptionaly safe: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230005002096

B4e1fa6a8cf43d2b69d97a99dfca262c

(10255)

on October 18, 2011
at 01:48 PM

@Travis, your comment about natto prompted me to Google; and you eat this stuff????? http://www.thesneeze.com/mt-archives/000169.php

0bc6cbb653cdc5e82400f6da920f11eb

(19245)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:35 AM

Do you know of any direct evidence of the mitochondrial effects of PQQ in humans yet? Looks interesting.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:44 AM

What about eating chicken hearts all the time? The very high dosages of these novel compounds make me a little leery.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:41 AM

@Trevis - I mean, its impossible to do it via diet once you get to 35 or so. Kids make a lot of it, probably the reason for hyperactivity.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:40 AM

Rasveratrol or it seems better, Longevinex looks very promicing. I don't like the behavior of Bill Sardi tho, so I would never take it.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:38 AM

LEF goes with shilajet - mymijo besides CoQ10, but its equally expensive. You can't do anti aging without money, lets not be naive.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:37 AM

Piracetam is not natural tho

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:37 AM

@Simibee - this is naturally occurring substance. The body doesn't care from where it came, just as is the case with cholesterol or fat.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:36 AM

@Travis - no. 17 different genes are involved and even more different resources - vitamins, minerals etc... the probability is very high that your body wont make enough. This is well known fact. Its impossible to do it via diet.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:37 AM

Seems like the dosages for PQQ supplements are massive compared to what anyone could possibly get from any diet.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:25 AM

Travis there was a reason it made my top ten paleo supplement list. I been studying it for the last 7 yrs. Pretty amazing how it has flown under the radar. NAtto is loaded with K2 and PQQ and that is no surprise to me either. It maybe the best health food to eat to combat a SAD.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:20 AM

Looks like I'm going to have to start eating natto every day again for PQQ this time.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:16 AM

That's interesting; it seems like zero-carbers would be deficient in it, if it were necessary.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 12:49 AM

True, but so is fluoride. The good news is that the manganese is bioavailable: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09637489209028368

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on October 18, 2011
at 12:39 AM

Travis Manganese is very plentiful in green tea.

Fa9f340eddbad9a544184c688fa4dcdd

(6433)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:59 PM

Interesting thanks, but rather than a battery of prohibitively expensive supplements, I'm more interested in the potential of lifestyle changes/substances naturally occurring in the diet to protect mitochondria. Any suggestions?

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:42 PM

If we have a lot of dietary cholesterol, wouldn't that free up the substrate for coq10 synthesis?

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:29 PM

Not equally important :D

Ce41c230e8c2a4295db31aec3ef4b2ab

(32564)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:08 PM

I know you are addressing diet here, Travis, but isn't resistance training equally important?

1a98a40ba8ffdc5aa28d1324d01c6c9f

(20378)

on October 17, 2011
at 09:52 PM

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3 Answers

5
Medium avatar

on October 18, 2011
at 01:56 AM

Lipoic acid is excellent for mitochondria. It's often called the "universal antioxidant" because, unlike other antioxidants, it scavenges both water and fat-soluble free radicals. Food sources are your first line of defense, but you may want to consider supplementing with R-Alpha Lipoic & Acid Acetyl L-Carnitine.

Weight training and cardiovascular exercise are both great for generating mitochondria. There's a vast amount of quality research showing this. Google. All else being equal (nothing ever is, but I like the phrase), athletes with the most healthy/efficient mitochondria come up with the best performances in endurance events. Obviously this holds for the endurance contest called Life. The longer we can extend the lifespan and advance the health of mitochondria, the longer we live. Not a magic bullet; there are many factors to healthy longevity, but still...

4
Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on October 18, 2011
at 12:50 AM

PQQ, Mg, Carnosine, Alpha lipoic acid, pyridoxal 5'- Phosphate, resveratrol, Ubiquinol, L-carnitine, and high dose vitamin C.

PQQ is the top dog to me. Take a look at this link and see how much more powerful it is compared to Vitamin C.

Rucker R, Chowanadisai W, Nakano M. Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep;14(3):268-77.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:20 AM

Looks like I'm going to have to start eating natto every day again for PQQ this time.

0bc6cbb653cdc5e82400f6da920f11eb

(19245)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:35 AM

Do you know of any direct evidence of the mitochondrial effects of PQQ in humans yet? Looks interesting.

B4e1fa6a8cf43d2b69d97a99dfca262c

(10255)

on October 18, 2011
at 01:48 PM

@Travis, your comment about natto prompted me to Google; and you eat this stuff????? http://www.thesneeze.com/mt-archives/000169.php

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:37 AM

Seems like the dosages for PQQ supplements are massive compared to what anyone could possibly get from any diet.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:25 AM

Travis there was a reason it made my top ten paleo supplement list. I been studying it for the last 7 yrs. Pretty amazing how it has flown under the radar. NAtto is loaded with K2 and PQQ and that is no surprise to me either. It maybe the best health food to eat to combat a SAD.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:40 AM

Rasveratrol or it seems better, Longevinex looks very promicing. I don't like the behavior of Bill Sardi tho, so I would never take it.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:16 AM

That's interesting; it seems like zero-carbers would be deficient in it, if it were necessary.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:49 PM

Yeah, I don't mind the taste at all. Sushi chefs always marvel at the fact that I order it on purpose.

3864f9a2af09b1b447c7963058650a34

(3703)

on October 26, 2011
at 02:09 AM

lol!!! u guys r gross...

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on October 26, 2011
at 12:29 AM

Natto is like eating ass......but if ass is good for me.....I am all about tossing salad.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 26, 2011
at 01:17 AM

Oh Doctor. You're bedside manner is very, very interesting. LOL You need to get Chris Rock to endorse your blog...

7841848bd0c27c64353c583fb7971242

(7275)

on August 19, 2012
at 05:26 PM

I love the taste of natto.

2
77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:09 PM

Ofcourse

Coenzime Q10 is most important: http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/turnover.html

Piracetam is shown to boost mitos. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1615864/ http://www.frontiersin.org/neuropharmacology/10.3389/fnins.2010.00044/full

Ketogenic diet http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18466343

(R)-??-Lipoic acid, a mitochondrial coenzyme http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2011/aug2011_Lipoic-Acid-Reverses-Mitochondrial-Decay_01.htm

Hormesis http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16242247

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:44 AM

What about eating chicken hearts all the time? The very high dosages of these novel compounds make me a little leery.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:37 AM

Piracetam is not natural tho

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:32 PM

It will definitely help. However, CoQ10 is thermally labile. Looking for high mitochondrial sources might help. CoQ10 is expeptionaly safe: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230005002096

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 07:52 PM

I wonder if it's not a natural process for us to produce less as we age and that it's simply the result of malnutrition over time. As such, I wonder if a hunter-gatherer would produce roughly the same amount throughout their lives, and thus we eating a paleo diet wouldn't necessarily need to supplement.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 09:41 PM

Aging and nutrition, this is good review. Interestingly, it contains topic about carbohydrate malabsorption in elderly :) http://www.ajcn.org/content/72/2/529S.full

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:47 PM

I forgot to mention that it looks like black chocolate works similarly to exercise. http://www.newser.com/story/102618/eat-chocolate-live-longer.html

Fa9f340eddbad9a544184c688fa4dcdd

(6433)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:59 PM

Interesting thanks, but rather than a battery of prohibitively expensive supplements, I'm more interested in the potential of lifestyle changes/substances naturally occurring in the diet to protect mitochondria. Any suggestions?

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:37 AM

@Simibee - this is naturally occurring substance. The body doesn't care from where it came, just as is the case with cholesterol or fat.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:36 AM

@Travis - no. 17 different genes are involved and even more different resources - vitamins, minerals etc... the probability is very high that your body wont make enough. This is well known fact. Its impossible to do it via diet.

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 17, 2011
at 10:42 PM

If we have a lot of dietary cholesterol, wouldn't that free up the substrate for coq10 synthesis?

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:41 AM

@Trevis - I mean, its impossible to do it via diet once you get to 35 or so. Kids make a lot of it, probably the reason for hyperactivity.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:33 PM

his complex, 17 step process, requiring at least seven vitamins (vitamin B2 - riboflavin, vitamin B3 - niacinamide, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and pantothenic acid) and several trace elements, is, by its nature, highly vulnerable. Karl Folkers argues that suboptimal nutrient intake in man is almost universal and that there is subsequent secondary impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis. This would mean that average or "normal" levels of CoQ10 are really suboptimal and the very low levels observed in advanced disease states represent only the tip of a deficiency "ice berg"

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 09:09 PM

This is also interesting: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7g13k12nh277767/ Vitamin E seem to help, there are bunch of papers on the same topic. It will damage prostate 17% tho :P

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 06:38 AM

LEF goes with shilajet - mymijo besides CoQ10, but its equally expensive. You can't do anti aging without money, lets not be naive.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:35 PM

To put dietary CoQ10 intake into perspective, one pound of sardines, two pounds of beef, or two and one half pounds of peanuts, provide 30 mg of CoQ10

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:38 PM

http://www.springerlink.com/content/vk16828n3gpu135l/fulltext.html

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 19, 2011
at 06:48 AM

Those are NOT supraphysioloogical doses. In first 20 - 25 years of your life, the levels of Q were higher then those you will get with CoQ10 supplements.

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 08:37 PM

Who knows. I wouldn't bet on it anyway. Its not that expensive, especially if you order it from USA - Jarrow formula Q Absrob with 100mg costs around $20 for a year. Age related malnutrition is probably the cause. Most vitamins do become malabsorbed with age. And out of bunch of those that R needed to make Q, only 1 can fail for Q to fail (the law of the minimum).

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 03:33 PM

From http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/coenzq10.html

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 18, 2011
at 08:53 PM

For instance: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w02/aging.html. Similar is true for bunch of those i.e. http://ageing.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/1/34.short http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC424123/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC437077/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098299705000415

Medium avatar

(39821)

on October 18, 2011
at 10:55 PM

Yeah, it's not the cost that I'm worried about, it's the supraphysiological doses.

D5cde8031564f905260ce9aa7a1f5e2c

(1170)

on October 24, 2011
at 06:34 PM

Majkinetor, where are you getting the Jarrow CoQ10 forumula for $20/yr?

77877f762c40637911396daa19b53094

(78467)

on October 25, 2011
at 06:48 AM

http://goo.gl/ri2An. Its 100mg and I take 30 per day, so this bottle is for a year. This is great product. You also have 10g on pure bulk: http://goo.gl/J1VVF. There is even recipe how to mix it with coconut oil.

5ef574d7893bc816ec52e04139e9bc09

(6097)

on May 04, 2012
at 08:11 PM

OK, they're safe via knowurl.com

5ef574d7893bc816ec52e04139e9bc09

(6097)

on May 04, 2012
at 08:01 PM

^ why post shortened links? now I'm just hesitant to click.

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