1

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Hack this study: compared to white bread, whole wheat increases LDL in ApoE3's

Answered on August 19, 2014
Created June 16, 2012 at 1:59 AM

I just came across this interesting study and I'm not sure what to make of it.

In a randomized controlled trial, participants were fed either white bread or whole grain sourdough style wheat bread for 6-weeks (the whole wheat contained some other ingredients, inclduing flax and soy).

They also measured ApoE genotype (there's been some discussion of ApoE on PH before, but I don't know much about it myself).

At first no major differences were noted but "When genetic variation was considered, albeit limited by retrospective assessment, it was found that in those with the APOE E3/E3 genotype, whole grain wheat sourdough bread unfavourably increased LDL-cholesterol in NGI participants".

So people with a copy of either ApoE2 or ApoE4 didn't experience this. I guess that leaves me with 2 questions:

  1. Why did the whole grain bread increase LDL compared to white bread?
  2. Why was this effect only seen in people homozygous for ApoE3?

121a16aded2bed8dca492d3c9662ef4c

(1327)

on September 03, 2012
at 09:21 PM

The number of cases of Alzheimer's is on the rise, and people are scared. Seems all around me people are getting dementia, including my own family members.

121a16aded2bed8dca492d3c9662ef4c

(1327)

on September 03, 2012
at 09:21 PM

The number of cases of Alzheimer's are on the rise, and people are scared. Seems all around me people are getting dementia, including my own family members.

Fd70d71f4f8195c3a098eda4fc817d4f

(8014)

on July 01, 2012
at 05:05 PM

MScott, if you're interested in ApoE stuff, I think you'll really love this one: http://www.jlr.org/content/46/5/949.full.pdf+html

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 30, 2012
at 02:09 AM

I'm not sure, but I find the subject intriguing. I think the ApoE alleles have important implications relating to diet which I don't think we fully understand yet. I thought this study might provide an additional piece to that puzzle.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 30, 2012
at 02:09 AM

I'm not sure, but I find the subject intriguing. I think the ApoE alleles has important implications relating to diet which I don't think we fully understand yet. I thought this study might provide an additional piece to that puzzle.

6120c989fd5b69f42a0834b69b87955b

(24553)

on June 30, 2012
at 12:34 AM

Check out Dr. G's ApoE 4 page, she's got some interesting stuff on this. http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/2011/07/apo-4-less-uv-triggered-vitamin-d.html

6120c989fd5b69f42a0834b69b87955b

(24553)

on June 30, 2012
at 12:27 AM

Go Geoducks!!!!

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 30, 2012
at 12:19 AM

Interesting, this makes sense to me, though I hadn't heard ApoE2 was considered the natural grain eater. Thanks for your speculations. Also (on a completely random note) I noticed on your website that we went to the same college. haha.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 16, 2012
at 04:55 PM

I'm not completely sure what you're asking, but I believe total:HDL cholesterol ratio and size/density pattern of LDL are both largely demonstrative of the same thing, namely time LDL spends in the blood stream.

Bb3d1772b28c02da2426e40dfcb533f5

(5381)

on June 16, 2012
at 03:01 PM

Doesnt it have to be small dense LDL?

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 16, 2012
at 09:11 AM

Raising LDL without concurrently increasing HDL (as seen in this study) causes the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol to increase. This ratio may be a crude marker of the time LDL particles spend in the blood. More time in the blood leads to more exposure to oxidants, which is important because oxidized LDL is likely a big contributer to atherosclerosis.

Bb3d1772b28c02da2426e40dfcb533f5

(5381)

on June 16, 2012
at 05:03 AM

Whats the importance of LDL? Whats far worse from what ive read is the potential for triglycerides to get raised from sugar or carbs...

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 16, 2012
at 04:26 AM

It's of very little significance to try and determine a potentially LDL raising compound or amalgam of compounds in whole wheat bread? I disagree.

4781cf8ae1bfcb558dfb056af17bea94

(4359)

on June 16, 2012
at 03:50 AM

Different foods have different effects on various loosely correlated surrogate markers for health. Not surprising I guess and probably of very little significance.

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3 Answers

1
A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on July 01, 2012
at 06:52 AM

In case anyone is as curious I am, I have a incredibly speculative hypothesis about this study and decided it would be better to make it an answer.

Maybe you've seen Denise Minger's blog post "The China Study, Wheat, and Heart Disease; Oh My!" where she discusses the strong correlation she found between wheat and heart disease. Yes, ultimately just correlation. She also brings up a few studies, namely this one in which wheat germ raised LDL a little bit and flax seed lowered LDL. This study was almost the same (but longer and only in women) and found the same; wheat germ raised LDL.

So perhaps something in wheat germ raises LDL cholesterol. And perhaps (based on the original study in this question) this something interacts with ApoE (which is a part of LDL particles, so this unsurprising).

I recently learned about a physiological difference between the various ApoE phenotypes; varying numbers of sialic acid. Why is sialic acid important? Wheat Germ Agglutinin, the infamous lectin in wheat, binds to sialic acid.

I have no idea what effect the binding of WGA to the sialic acid in ApoE would have on anything as this area has very little study. But this is my point: I believe the study in question is very weakly suggestive of an LDL raising property of Wheat Germ Agglutenin. How or if this is related (indirectly or otherwise) to heart disease risk I could even less guess.

If anyone has any thoughts on this I'd love to hear it.

1
6120c989fd5b69f42a0834b69b87955b

(24553)

on June 29, 2012
at 11:03 PM

Whole grain contain more irritants, LDL is our body's equivalent of tiny bandaids. More damage would equal the need for more healing. I'm not sure why it wouldn't have an effect on ApoE 4 the same as ApoE 3, because neither of those populations were put through the selective pressure to consume as much grain as ApoE 2 which is the "natural grain eater".

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 30, 2012
at 12:19 AM

Interesting, this makes sense to me, though I hadn't heard ApoE2 was considered the natural grain eater. Thanks for your speculations. Also (on a completely random note) I noticed on your website that we went to the same college. haha.

6120c989fd5b69f42a0834b69b87955b

(24553)

on June 30, 2012
at 12:27 AM

Go Geoducks!!!!

6120c989fd5b69f42a0834b69b87955b

(24553)

on June 30, 2012
at 12:34 AM

Check out Dr. G's ApoE 4 page, she's got some interesting stuff on this. http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/2011/07/apo-4-less-uv-triggered-vitamin-d.html

0
Fd70d71f4f8195c3a098eda4fc817d4f

(8014)

on June 30, 2012
at 01:45 AM

What's with all the questions on ApoE phenotypes lately? Seems like a lot are popping up.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 30, 2012
at 02:09 AM

I'm not sure, but I find the subject intriguing. I think the ApoE alleles has important implications relating to diet which I don't think we fully understand yet. I thought this study might provide an additional piece to that puzzle.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on June 30, 2012
at 02:09 AM

I'm not sure, but I find the subject intriguing. I think the ApoE alleles have important implications relating to diet which I don't think we fully understand yet. I thought this study might provide an additional piece to that puzzle.

121a16aded2bed8dca492d3c9662ef4c

(1327)

on September 03, 2012
at 09:21 PM

The number of cases of Alzheimer's is on the rise, and people are scared. Seems all around me people are getting dementia, including my own family members.

121a16aded2bed8dca492d3c9662ef4c

(1327)

on September 03, 2012
at 09:21 PM

The number of cases of Alzheimer's are on the rise, and people are scared. Seems all around me people are getting dementia, including my own family members.

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