2

votes

What is biochemistry behind Gluten Consumption?

Answered on September 12, 2014
Created April 14, 2011 at 11:49 PM

I'm asking yet another mechanism type question. If there is a similar thread, it would be awesome if you could link me - I couldn't find one.

Here goes:

When you ingest gluten what happens biochemically to the body? What hormones are released? How does the gluten protein trigger certain affects? What signals lead to inflammation? How do the structures of the molecules interact. What are all the biological mechanisms that come into play. What 'domino effect' occurs if any? Basically, all the fun biochemistry.

If you can explain it awesome! Or, if you can suggest some books or links that's great too.

Thanks!

EDIT: Thank you all for your responses, I really appreciate it. It was difficult to decide which one to pick for the bounty but after mulling it over I think the article linked was the most succinct yet informative in regards to the topic.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on September 07, 2013
at 01:28 AM

I like this, thanks!

7622ce68c94d31b884e5aeb1e6a4249d

(140)

on April 25, 2011
at 06:07 PM

This image is from Briani C, et al. Celiac disease: from gluten to autoimmunity (PMID: 18589004)

559aa134ff5e6c8bcd608ba8dc505628

(3631)

on April 25, 2011
at 03:04 AM

There is a wealth of information about about gluten re celiac on the web; i was assuming allie was asking about mechanisms in non-celiacs. And yes, dr k, you could have talked about tubers, but then you wouldnt have been talking about gluten mechanisms at all.

7e746be2f0e550a8cd7df881322ae705

(18701)

on April 23, 2011
at 12:06 PM

Where is this from? I'd love to use it for a presentation!

07ca188c8dac3a17f629dd87198d2098

(7970)

on April 22, 2011
at 07:55 PM

It is, and it's a great read. I was assuming it would fully answer the question! :) (Thus would've posted it had Michael K not beat me to it ;)

D10ca8d11301c2f4993ac2279ce4b930

(5242)

on April 22, 2011
at 01:01 AM

For a whole host of bad ideas, see the table on the last page

D10ca8d11301c2f4993ac2279ce4b930

(5242)

on April 22, 2011
at 01:01 AM

For a whole host of bad ideas, see the table on last page.

D10ca8d11301c2f4993ac2279ce4b930

(5242)

on April 22, 2011
at 12:39 AM

The specificity of issues with gluten to celiacs is important to note when dealing with this biochemistry. As Matt Lalonde says the gluten is death motto is a lazy, incomplete argument. WGA, Lectins, Phytates, and Phytic Acid all contribute to digestive trouble. It's not just gluten which means it's not just celiacs. That said, celiacs is wildly under diagnosed and we can only test for it when the microvilli are completely damaged. There is a transition state of celiacs where villi are compromised but complete villous atrophy has not yet occurred. We can only test for complete villous atrophy

D10ca8d11301c2f4993ac2279ce4b930

(5242)

on April 22, 2011
at 12:38 AM

The specificity of issues with gluten to celiacs is important to note when deal with this biochemistry. As Matt Lalonde says the Gluten is death motto is a lazy, incomplete argument. WGA, Lectins, Phytates, and Phytic Acid all contribute to digestive trouble. It's not just gluten which means it's not just celiacs. That said, celiacs is wildly under diagnosed and we can only test for it when the microvilli are completely damaged. There is an transition state of celiacs where villi are compromised but complete villous atrophy has not yet occurred. We can only test for complete villous atrophy.

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:36 AM

This is what I was going to post as well. Excellent article! Plus wikipedia has some great links on gluten sensitivity.

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:35 AM

I know this is off-topic, but I was wondering if you could expound a bit more on saponins poking holes in lumen...? Do you mean direct mechanical damage to enterocytes?

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:30 AM

This also doesnt take into account the role of gut flora in triggering gluten sensitivity gene expression and also production of zonulin.

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:29 AM

The only thing missing from the image is the role of Zonulin produced by enterocytes that causes zonula occludensa (tight junctions) to open, allowing free entry of gluten. (As per the Scientific American article, August 2009)

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on April 20, 2011
at 01:53 PM

I used it because it is the best studied and known model. I could have talked about tubers with saponins that poke holes all in the lumen but I dont think many know about that. That is part of the reason we must avoid some tubers and quinoa.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 20, 2011
at 10:54 AM

You're right uwinwin, I didn't. I can see why Dr.K used it though, Celiac disease deals with gluten-intolerance and research on the illness surely provides information about it's role in any human's body.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 20, 2011
at 10:51 AM

Thanks. This is straight out of *The Paleo Solution* I believe ... I'll read over it again though.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 20, 2011
at 10:50 AM

Thanks. This is straight out of *The Paleo Solution* I believe ... I'll read over it again though.

559aa134ff5e6c8bcd608ba8dc505628

(3631)

on April 20, 2011
at 01:18 AM

she didn't ask about celiac.

55c3c2a048c4eadbf6829d1bcecfee1f

(75)

on April 19, 2011
at 03:09 PM

The illustration on page 7 of this pdf is what I was going to post. It definitely made understanding the roles of gluten, zonulin, T-cell secretions, etc. much easier. Highly recommended.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on April 19, 2011
at 11:50 AM

Vitamin D receptors are actually on the immune cells like T cells and activate them. So I am not sure D3 would reverse activation unless it was being lowered by concurrent inflammation

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on April 19, 2011
at 02:54 AM

I have read where normal exposure to sunlight or supplementation with Vit D3 after a while causes a few people to evenaually become sick from unknown causes....I presume that may happen to people that are undiagnosed celiacs. Could it be that activating the killer T cells with Vit D3 just aggravates the undiagnosed celiac?

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on April 19, 2011
at 02:50 AM

I have read where normal exposure to sunlight or supplementation with Vit D3 after a while causes a few people to evenaually become sick from unknown causes....I presume that may happen to people that are undiagnosed celiacs. Could it be that activating the killer T cells with Vit D3 just agrivates the undiagnosed celiac?

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 15, 2011
at 01:27 AM

Awesome recommendations, thank you!!

  • B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

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7 Answers

best answer

5
F910318b9aa27b91bcf7881f39b9eabe

on April 19, 2011
at 10:31 AM

Maybe this article published in the August 2009 issue of the journal Scientific American entitled ???Surprises from Celiac Disease" by Dr. Alessio Fasano is what you're looking for:

http://somvweb.som.umaryland.edu/absolutenm/articlefiles/837-Fasano%20Scientific%20American%20article%208.2009.pdf

It's a really interesting read.

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:36 AM

This is what I was going to post as well. Excellent article! Plus wikipedia has some great links on gluten sensitivity.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 20, 2011
at 10:50 AM

Thanks. This is straight out of *The Paleo Solution* I believe ... I'll read over it again though.

55c3c2a048c4eadbf6829d1bcecfee1f

(75)

on April 19, 2011
at 03:09 PM

The illustration on page 7 of this pdf is what I was going to post. It definitely made understanding the roles of gluten, zonulin, T-cell secretions, etc. much easier. Highly recommended.

D10ca8d11301c2f4993ac2279ce4b930

(5242)

on April 22, 2011
at 01:01 AM

For a whole host of bad ideas, see the table on last page.

D10ca8d11301c2f4993ac2279ce4b930

(5242)

on April 22, 2011
at 01:01 AM

For a whole host of bad ideas, see the table on the last page

6
7622ce68c94d31b884e5aeb1e6a4249d

(140)

on April 19, 2011
at 04:56 AM

This image might help you.

what-is-biochemistry-behind-gluten-consumption?

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on September 07, 2013
at 01:28 AM

I like this, thanks!

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:30 AM

This also doesnt take into account the role of gut flora in triggering gluten sensitivity gene expression and also production of zonulin.

7e746be2f0e550a8cd7df881322ae705

(18701)

on April 23, 2011
at 12:06 PM

Where is this from? I'd love to use it for a presentation!

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:29 AM

The only thing missing from the image is the role of Zonulin produced by enterocytes that causes zonula occludensa (tight junctions) to open, allowing free entry of gluten. (As per the Scientific American article, August 2009)

7622ce68c94d31b884e5aeb1e6a4249d

(140)

on April 25, 2011
at 06:07 PM

This image is from Briani C, et al. Celiac disease: from gluten to autoimmunity (PMID: 18589004)

6
Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on April 19, 2011
at 02:17 AM

Celiac disease is caused by WGA intolerance. It is an autoimmune condition caused by lectins in grains. Lectins are proteins in grains that have parts of their own tertiary protein coats that "look" very similar to parts of our our cellular proteins. Lectins are large proteins rich in proline and this AA has to be transported across the intestinal lumen via receptors. Since their is a lot of proline the body gets fooled into thinking its bound proline to be absorbed and broken down by our liver. That does not happen. It tricks the system and the entire WGA protein enters the other side and hits the GALT. That is the gut associated Lymphatic tissue ( gut immune sytem) Because they look similar our bodies immune system called the GALT sits right behind the intestinal wall and it sees these proteins that cant be digested and it makes the B cells in the GALT make antibodies to get rid of them. Its kind of like a case of mistaken identity. The Antibodies attack the WGA but due to the unusual tertiary shape of the protein it also looks like other proteins we have in our body and it attacks those tissues as well. What ever protein it looks like will be taken out by natural killer cells in our immune system by cell mediated immunity. CD 4 and CD 8 cells and NKiller cells. That is as condensed and to the point as I can get off of my head.

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on April 19, 2011
at 02:54 AM

I have read where normal exposure to sunlight or supplementation with Vit D3 after a while causes a few people to evenaually become sick from unknown causes....I presume that may happen to people that are undiagnosed celiacs. Could it be that activating the killer T cells with Vit D3 just aggravates the undiagnosed celiac?

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on April 19, 2011
at 11:50 AM

Vitamin D receptors are actually on the immune cells like T cells and activate them. So I am not sure D3 would reverse activation unless it was being lowered by concurrent inflammation

06d21b99c58283ce575e36c4ecd4a458

(9948)

on April 19, 2011
at 02:50 AM

I have read where normal exposure to sunlight or supplementation with Vit D3 after a while causes a few people to evenaually become sick from unknown causes....I presume that may happen to people that are undiagnosed celiacs. Could it be that activating the killer T cells with Vit D3 just agrivates the undiagnosed celiac?

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 20, 2011
at 10:54 AM

You're right uwinwin, I didn't. I can see why Dr.K used it though, Celiac disease deals with gluten-intolerance and research on the illness surely provides information about it's role in any human's body.

559aa134ff5e6c8bcd608ba8dc505628

(3631)

on April 20, 2011
at 01:18 AM

she didn't ask about celiac.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on April 20, 2011
at 01:53 PM

I used it because it is the best studied and known model. I could have talked about tubers with saponins that poke holes all in the lumen but I dont think many know about that. That is part of the reason we must avoid some tubers and quinoa.

17c4ac2c3f75c9e37d196ea878ea94b5

(130)

on April 21, 2011
at 09:35 AM

I know this is off-topic, but I was wondering if you could expound a bit more on saponins poking holes in lumen...? Do you mean direct mechanical damage to enterocytes?

559aa134ff5e6c8bcd608ba8dc505628

(3631)

on April 25, 2011
at 03:04 AM

There is a wealth of information about about gluten re celiac on the web; i was assuming allie was asking about mechanisms in non-celiacs. And yes, dr k, you could have talked about tubers, but then you wouldnt have been talking about gluten mechanisms at all.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 20, 2011
at 10:51 AM

Thanks. This is straight out of *The Paleo Solution* I believe ... I'll read over it again though.

07ca188c8dac3a17f629dd87198d2098

(7970)

on April 22, 2011
at 07:55 PM

It is, and it's a great read. I was assuming it would fully answer the question! :) (Thus would've posted it had Michael K not beat me to it ;)

0
559aa134ff5e6c8bcd608ba8dc505628

(3631)

on April 20, 2011
at 01:30 AM

hi, i don't think science has all the answers yet. i did find this post useful, as an overview. http://robbwolf.com/2011/01/12/hey-robb-this-person-said-gluten-free-diets-are-bogus/

i have read so many other things about the gluten protein around the web and on pubmed, but failed to bookmark, regrettably. good luck!

0
E242f951a4cb9953adb284741fa7a385

on April 19, 2011
at 01:23 PM

Christina....

"Cereal Grains, Legumes and Weight Management:a Comprehensive Review of the Scientific Evidence" Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):171-82.

as far as I can see, appears to be arguing FOR grain consumption, although I have only read the abstract.

Care to explain further?

0
892f9eb3a35eb5b888d256b1287c962d

on April 15, 2011
at 12:51 AM

I'm writing a paper on it as we speak! Look into articles such as "Nondigestible Carboydrates and Mineral Bioavailability", and "Cereal Grains, Legumes and Weight Management:a Comprehensive Review of the Scientific Evidence". Also if you go to the website PubMed and put in "Gluten", "Antinutrients", "Leptin Resistence", and "Gut Permeability", it should spit out some nice peer reviewed articles for you. Hope that helps.

B1fcaceba952861d0324bdb291edbbe0

(3159)

on April 15, 2011
at 01:27 AM

Awesome recommendations, thank you!!

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