Ok, paleo people, we have gone pretty far... Conventional wisdom does not see these kind of articles a lot. However, I think this is the hardest part to do for optimal eating and living.
I finally picked up The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living (read like 4 other books in this time period - being a huge nerd). It contained a lot of stuff i knew already, however, the last chapters about fat consumption were great.
However, it is tough to get good fats nowadays and think this is the main paleo challenge. It causes binging, quitting and sadness every day. I could find some information about fat sources, but it is not so easy to find, and there are a lot of pros and cons that are not mentioned.
What I recommend doing: Let's create a list of fat sources. Some information about the ammount, possible pros, cons, risks, price and availability would be great.
I will start, though I might not be 100% accurate. (note - maintenance paleo is around 150-250 of fat a day that might seem huge for "normal" people)
1)AVOCADOS (1 avocado: 30g fat; 18g carb, 4g protein) Avocados pretty damn natural, pesticide risks are not that high, off course might be better organic if you can afford it, not very expensive and taste well with some salad. 1-2 avocados a day should be no problem. There is some information about high PUFA content, but I do not think that is really a problem. Though almost no omega-3 here, that might be a con and around 15% of the fat is omega-6. I think the best thing is that they do not cause any allergic reactions or inflammation (I think so). Not very high in carbs, but might be problematic for people who want to be very keto.
2) HAZELNUTS (100g: 61g fat; 17g carb; 15g protein) I crave them like crazy. I crave almonds and other fatty things too, but fat/protein ratio and great taste just makes it ridiculous. It might be just because they are pretty fatty carbs, contain micronutrients and are dense and I feel hungry pretty often after going paleo and not getting a lot of fat.
Hazelnuts are tougher to describe. Pesticide risks are not that high, raw might be better and they are pretty affordable. They contain fats that are quite similar to avocados, so they should be balanced with omega-3 sources. Hazelnuts have high fat/protein ratio, so they can be great if you eat to much protein and want to balance it. Some people might be a little allergic to them, but they are not highly inflammatory. A lot of them might not be so good for digestive system, so some moderation here. And it is easy to binge because of them.
To sum up: great for snacks to get some fast energy, some moderation should be used and you should look how they effect your body.
It would be great you could help to describe some fat sources like this. If I have enough free time I might try to post more answers, to keep this thready going. Not sure if this is a best place for blogging like that, but I see some value for this.
Eat with passion, riot
asked byriot (135)
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on February 18, 2013
at 06:51 AM
3) Organic grass-fed tallow from cow, sheep, goat, bison, venison etc Pros - low in PUFA, heat stable so good for cooking, good O3/O6 ratio, easy to make if you can get the suet fat Cons - very difficult to clean of crockery, can congeal in mouth/on food due to high melting point, not the best taste
4) Ghee made from organic grass fed butter (goat or cow) Pros - low in PUFA, heat stable, good O3/O6 ratio, easy to make, delicious, lower MP than tallow Cons - high in bovine hormones many wish to avoid
5) Ruminant bone marrow (grass fed) Pros - tasty, low in PUFA, good O3/O6 ratio, high in mono-unsaturates Cons - difficult to source. Too rich/fatty for some
6) Lard Pros - good consistency for cooking, lower MP than tallow, high in mono unsaturates Cons - higher in PUFA than tallow, difficult to find pigs fed a good diet
plus macadamias, goose/chicken fat, coconut oil, red palm oil etc etc etc.
on February 17, 2013
at 08:11 PM
Best sources of fat: Ruminants, Fish, and Crustaceans
Other sources: Coconuts/ Coconut Oil, Olives/ Olive Oil, Butter, Tallow, assorted nuts and seeds
on February 23, 2013
at 07:21 AM
Could not post for a few days, but I wanted to describe various fats in plaeo diet and how they should be viewed. I started to study/understand it only recently. I think that all those short names and mentioning them all the time confuses a lot of people.
So how fats differ?
Fatty acids are generally classed by the length of the carbon chain – ‘short’ (2, 3, or 4), ‘medium’ (6 to 12) and ‘long’ (14 or more) – and by the number of double bonds within that chain. SFA - Saturated fats have no double bonds, MUFA - mono-unsaturates have one double bond in the carbon chain, and PUFA - polyunsaturates have two or more double bonds. (The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living)
So the main ideas here:
1) Polyunsaturates (PUFA) come in two forms: omega-3 and omega-6.
2) PUFA are essential, but their consumption should be controlled because they oxidaze easy and can cause inflammation (many double bounds, remember something from chemistry here).
3) Nowadays the main problem is consumption of too much omega-6 and too little of omega-3, it causes inflammation, so you should:
i) Lower your total PUFA intake (someting around 10g a day is pretty good and achievable, some people talk about 2 g, but it gets very hard, some guidelines - 3-6% from your total calories should come from PUFA)
ii) Increase your omega-6/omega-3 ratio (1:1 or 2:1 ideally). This comes from fish, wilder meats ... If tatal PUFA is low, can use fish oil too.
4) So the rest of the fat should come from mono-unsaturated and saturated fats.
In terms of practical choices, this implies that we give high priority to mono-unsaturates, then saturates, and make reasonable efforts to avoid rich sources of omega-6 polyunsaturates. (The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living)
With my English I could not describe it better and the authors have studiet low carb diets for decades so I trust them pretty much. Some good posts that I found:
on February 19, 2013
at 10:43 AM
Tahini mixed with honey.
on February 19, 2013
at 10:39 AM
8) EGGS (1 egg: 6.7g fat; 1g carb; 6g protein) - as mentioned earlier it is a good source of fat and protein. Organic have much higher content of O-3 and are generallly better.
The main problem with them is that quite a lot of people have allergic reactions to them. This site gives some good information about causes and symptoms http://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/allergies/food-allergy/dairy-eggs-meat/common-symptoms-of-egg-allergies.htm Because of this we should check how our bodies react to them, also some not so noticable reactions should be checked. However, I think it is quite hard to get enough fat without eggs if you avoid dairy. I think it is the next food I should try to avoid to get my acne and skin condition even better.
As I discovered boiled eggs contain a little more protein (not getting so denaturated because of the lower cooking temperatures). I do not think that scrambled and boiled eggs differ that much in their nutritional value.
You should not worry about choloesterol content a lot. If you know how it really works and influences possible heart diseases, you know that the ammount of cholesterol you eat is not really important. If you doubt that, read about it.
So allergic reactions are the main concerns with eggs.
on February 18, 2013
at 12:56 PM
Egg yolks are always great. Good fatty acid composition and chock full of nutrients. Also one of the few good sources of choline.
on February 18, 2013
at 07:30 AM
7) OLIVES (100g (30 olives): 15g fat; 4g carb) A lot of paleo people might get a little addicted to them after a while because they addapt to the specific taste and they are usually pickled (if you do not get enough salt). Contain mainly monounsaturated fats, pretty low PUFA (8%), almost no O-3.
From paleo perspective olives are a domesticated version of a larger fruit. However, people have grown them for a while and we seem well adapted to them. Only concern that I could find was about too much salt - not really a concern if you eat paleo.
Most olives are pickled and canned. So we should look for ones that contain almost only salt, water and olives. Some weird chemical risks here, like acrylamide, but I would not worry a lot about it.
Summary: affordable, not very high in fat, taste well and no big cons for them, only high salt content that is not a big concern.