4

votes

Scientifically speaking, what happens with saturated fat when it enters a body?

Answered on September 12, 2014
Created March 03, 2011 at 4:35 PM

I know saturated is great and I have no doubts about its greatness but I would love to know how it is metabolized by our bodies. Conventional Wisdom says it stays saturated and therefore "clogs our arteries", but when people use that as an argument against me I don't know how to respond. Would love to have some obvious "ammo" to rub into there face.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 06, 2011
at 03:21 PM

My oath is to do no harm......and I dont. If you dont get it I dont worry because you are not someone who is my patient. You are here to discuss read and improve your former self just like I am. We can all learnfrom one another if we are open to it. We can agree to disagree but the bottom line is Cardiac CRP is a very useful clinical tool and one that is under utilized by most of my collegues. The more time that elapses the more you will see this test mentioned. It is the best way to assess the inflamamtory cytokines in our cells and mitochondria.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 05, 2011
at 04:13 PM

Calling thrombaxanes anti-inflammatory is accurate? Sadly, Dr. K this debate disintegrates. I too have both formal and informal medical and research training. Jargon won't hide the other flaws in your answers. We're talking about people's health- the bar for discourse is set high.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 03:21 AM

The answer given is accurate and explains fully why we use cardiac CRP. mac seemed to think there is no clinical rationale for its use. This link shows why it is done. Research meeting clinical medicine does occur here.

Fa6e406ab332eb3a229fa58181ad21d0

(0)

on March 05, 2011
at 02:52 AM

This "Dr. K" answer was cut-and-pasted from: http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/eicosanoids.html (I've seen other people busting this Dr. K guy on other threads and was happy to find this particular one so that I could bust him too!)

04293f705870e1837b8670d3c1cd5f67

(2261)

on March 05, 2011
at 02:35 AM

That is a very scientific answer!

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:53 AM

and I do so where you got the two profile thing now because I see two Dr. K's with two numbers and I am not sure why. One was me answering at work and the other was me from my ipad? Not sure if that is why it occured but it was not done to somehow confuse anyone.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:18 AM

If you have high cardiac risks you risks of other diseases like CVA, liver disease, obesity, organ failure, AD, depression etc go up up up up. Its not that difficult to get. But you dont and I see that. I cant teach it to you but if you keep reading you will see how we use it in clinical medicine. Its as common a screening test now as an EKG or a stress test.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:16 AM

I think you need to read a bit more about mitochondrial apoptosis and why it occurs. It is precisely do to the location and proximity of the leakiest of the cytochromes in the mitochondrial membrane and it degrades its membrane and that of the nucleus. This has been known for three decades and has formed the new beliefs of mitochondrial aging. As for the cardiac CRP. It appears you dont get it. Its a PROXY for the amount of inflammation in the mitochondria. That is why cardiologist measure it. If above 3 you get worked up and have very high cardiac risks

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 04, 2011
at 03:25 PM

@Dr. K: One thing I cannot let go: "the first cytochrome in the mitochondria is always located adjacent to the mitochondrial DNA." You are aware that the cytochrome complexes in oxidative phosphorylation are on the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is still quite far from the mitochondrial DNA, some of which is actually in the cell's nucleus.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 04, 2011
at 03:22 PM

@Dr. K: To prevent this exchange from degrading further, I suggest you post your explanation of the the use of Cardiac CRP here or, say on Wikipedia. Peer criticism is invaluable in refining one's thoughts.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 04, 2011
at 03:22 PM

@ Dr.K: I am flummoxed. I don't follow your logic, use of cited material, or interpretation of the science. Anyone can mention molecules and pathways ad nauseam. Why does CARDIAC CRP tell you about inflammation throughout the body? I think it is prudent not to be dogmatic, especially with incomplete dogma. I think it is dangerous to wade into complex science with platitudes and what seems to be a dilettante's understanding masquerading as that of a concerned expert.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 04:01 AM

Dr. Mary Enig Ph.D is in favor of saturated fat. See her studies all over the WPF site... Dr. Suzanne Craft Ph.D is not. She studies how insulin resistance plays a role in developing Alzheimer's. http://www.hbo.com/alzheimers/supplementary-the-connection-between-insulin-and-alzheimers.html She says that consuming saturated fat causes a rise in insulin. The story is not clear as yet. And that is the point. As a clinician I have to not be dogmatic and way all options and go with the best available advise that is out there. If you think this is dangerous, fine. I think its prudent

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:24 AM

the more inflammed you are the worse sat fats can be. If your levels are low whch most paleo people are its a dead issue. Just like everything else with patients their diseases and their issues are a continuum and a process. It does not fit into a neat little box that explains all people regardless of their independent variables. I think this is pretty basic understanding of most healthcare professionals and one that seems lost on followers of a zeitgeist. Their is no dogma even in paleo. You have to keep questioning all beliefs based upon the science as its published.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:21 AM

'Long-chain saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid induce insulin resistance and NF-kappaB activation in skeletal muscle cells'in "Trans Fatty Acid-Induced NF-kappaB Activation Does Not Induce Insulin Resistance in Cultured Murine Skeletal Muscle Cells" Lipids, february 2010

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:07 AM

The first cytochrome in the mitochondria is always located adjacent to the mitochondrial DNA and the more leaky this membrane the more oxidative damage occurs in the cell. The more oxidative damage leads to higher levels of NF kappa beta, IL 2 and 6, and TNF. These chemicals are all the transducer proteins of the pathways previosuly mentioned. They also are critical to apoptosis pathways, and is the signalling for mitochondrial turnover and the aging of the cell. I hope this clears up your issues. As for practicing medicine here I am not. These discussions are for education and discussion

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:02 AM

It give us clinicians a way to quickly assess and the two major arms of disease.....namely the inflammtory process and the immune system. The Fire and Water of the body. Once this base line is assessed then we delve deeper into the specific issues that the patient needs call for. Prior to Ultra sensitive CRP we used a regular CRP which is not specific and not sensitive. the ultra sensitive CRP is not specific but much more sensitive especially at the cytochrome level of mitochindria. We know that the higher the cardiac CRP the more Leaky mitochindria are at the first cytochrome.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 01:58 AM

Ok....dont understand the profile thing and I am home now. The Cardiac CRP and vitamin D levels are proxies for mitochondrial inflammation and the level of antioxidents that effect the many pathways in the body. For example the mTor pathwayand the Nrf2 pathway is another. We all know that glutiathione is the bodies main antioxident but there are hundreds of others. What is now clear is that the Vit D receptor is "the swtich" for the immune system and a proxy for the majority of antioxidents. Kind of like Pareto's law for the thousands.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 09:55 PM

@Jack, rob: Consider my answer a work in progress. My punchline: Different sources of saturated fat have different fatty acid compositions. Compare the level of laureate in coconut milk, chocolate, and beef. Some combinations of saturated fatty acids cause plaque build-ups in animal models- specifically those high in myristic. (Note that coconut, chocolate, meat are low in that one.) Others (e.g. laureate-dominated) don't increase cardiovascular risk. Even pro-SAD biochemists will tell you that. More to come. Thanks for the comments in media res- very helpful.

0adda19045a3641edac0008364b91110

(1146)

on March 03, 2011
at 08:31 PM

Excellent info, but like Jack stated, I am not sure what your conclusion is on sat. fat?

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 03, 2011
at 08:06 PM

I dont have another profile? And when I get home I would be glad to explain the Cardiac CRP issue as a marker of mitochondria inflammation.

21fd060d0796fdb8a4a990441e08eae7

(24543)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:38 PM

Broad based recommendations coupled with grammar and spelling errors do not generally add up to reliable advice.

Af1d286f0fd5c3949f59b4edf4d892f5

(18472)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:30 PM

mac - in your 'recollection' paragraph, what's the conclusion? i cannot tell if you are saying sat fat is good or bad or what. thx for your info.

Af1d286f0fd5c3949f59b4edf4d892f5

(18472)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:26 PM

mac's questions are valid.

0bc6cbb653cdc5e82400f6da920f11eb

(19245)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:22 PM

Too many ..........'s

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:15 PM

@Dr.K: Please correct me if I'm wrong, but what are you trying to pull? You had one profile up claiming you were a neurosurgeon and age-management doc- on odd combination. And when I posted that you shouldn't be giving medical advice over the Internet, you made a new profile that contains no mention of medical credentials except that implied by your name.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:53 PM

@Dr. K: I hate to push the issue but you give the same recommendation (get a cardiac CRP) for everything without justification. Furthermore, I don't understand the clinical rationale supporting answer. In fact some things are at best slips of the tongue but may betray a more serious ignorance. Stearic acid is not a saturated fat but a fatty acid that is a component of some saturated fats, mostly those in chocolate & ground beef.

0adda19045a3641edac0008364b91110

(1146)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:45 PM

Could you explain to me how exactly is it that saturated fat becomes dangerous when inflammation is present? I thought saturated fat was antinflammatory? Resources??

A5ead9de259ae72f2165ecb12f4ae764

(440)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:29 PM

Thanks for the info Dr. K. I'll keep it mind with my next blood panel.

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3 Answers

1
4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:07 PM

Hi Rob,

I think your question is about how saturated fats are metabolized into their building blocks, fatty acids. The best answer is that dietary levels of anything aren't as correlated with serum levels as you might think. So eating a lot of fat, after an adaptation period, doesn't mean high lipid levels. The same goes for eating a lot of sugar. The debate then hinges on what the adverse effects of the adaptation to that diet is.

What follows is a precis of the Wikipedia article. I'm running an experiment, but once it finishes, I'll supplement it with some of my biochemistry texts at home and edit for clarity. Meanwhile, I wanted to give a preliminary answer.

Saturated fat is broken down by digestion into fatty acids that are transported through the bloodstream and into cells. Once in cells, the fatty acid may be chewed up 2 carbon lengths at a time to provide acetyl-CoA, one of two required reactants for the Krebs cycle. The other, pyruvate, can come from either glycolysis or the combination of two molecules of acetyl-CoA. This is all inside the cell.

[From my recollection]

Outside the cell it was thought that saturated fat precipitated onto blood vessel walls because it was hydrophobic. Normally transport vehicles (lipoproteins) would handle it but if someone ate too much saturated fat, it would start to float around un-chauffered and glom onto things. No one believes this because saturated fat never floats around in the blood stream, only fatty acids which are polar enough not to precipitate under normal physiologic conditions. Now the idea is that saturated fat dysregulates (i.e. messes up) macrophages. Normally they help, among their other roles, repair daily blood vessel wall injuries that happen just due to movement. The problem is a high amount of saturated fat was thought to make the macrophages stay to long at the cite of a blood vessel wall tear thus exacerbating rather than stopping the normal inflammatory reaction. These macrophages, laden with fatty acids, came to be called foam cells. Indeed foam cells from plaques have a lot of saturated fat.

Af1d286f0fd5c3949f59b4edf4d892f5

(18472)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:30 PM

mac - in your 'recollection' paragraph, what's the conclusion? i cannot tell if you are saying sat fat is good or bad or what. thx for your info.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 09:55 PM

@Jack, rob: Consider my answer a work in progress. My punchline: Different sources of saturated fat have different fatty acid compositions. Compare the level of laureate in coconut milk, chocolate, and beef. Some combinations of saturated fatty acids cause plaque build-ups in animal models- specifically those high in myristic. (Note that coconut, chocolate, meat are low in that one.) Others (e.g. laureate-dominated) don't increase cardiovascular risk. Even pro-SAD biochemists will tell you that. More to come. Thanks for the comments in media res- very helpful.

0adda19045a3641edac0008364b91110

(1146)

on March 03, 2011
at 08:31 PM

Excellent info, but like Jack stated, I am not sure what your conclusion is on sat. fat?

0
Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:51 AM

And this is specifically for mac389. You can search my posts on eicosanoids for more details since your seem to be that kinda guy. Here is a copy of one of the paragraphs there that specifically mentions where cardiac CRP comes into the equation from the eicosanoid pro inflammatory side of their receptor function.

The synthesis of arachidonate, much of the DGLA derived from ingested linoleic acid or GLA is diverted into membrane phospholipids due to the inefficiency of the Δ5-desaturase catalyzing the conversion of DGLA to arachidonic acid. Incorporation of DGLA into membrane phospholipids competes with the incorporation of arachidonate so that diets enriched in GLA result in an alteration in the ratio of membrane arachidonate to DGLA. Release of membrane DGLA occurs through the action of PLA2 just as for release of arachidonate. Once DGLA is released it will compete with arachidonate for COXs and LOXs. The products of COX action on DGLA are series-1 prostaglandins (PGE1) and thromboxanes (TXA1). These eicosanoids are structurally similar to the series-2 eicosanoids except, of course, they have a single double bond. Although structurally similar, the series-1 eicosanoids have distinctly different biological actions. And this is why there is a ton of confusion of what this class of fats does.......PGE1 and TXA1 are anti-inflammatory, they induce vasodilation, and they inhibit platelet aggregation. When DGLA is a substrate for 15-LOX the product is 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE). 15-HETrE is a potent inhibitor of 5-LOX which is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of arachidonic acid to LTB4. LTB4 is a potent inflammatory molecule through its action on neutrophils, thus, DGLA serves to inhibit inflammation via the linear eicosanoid pathway as well. The more omega 6 oils you eat with lineolic acid the more this favors this breakdown to the inflammatory eicosainoid production and hence a rise in your cardiac CRP in inflammation measurement.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:53 AM

and I do so where you got the two profile thing now because I see two Dr. K's with two numbers and I am not sure why. One was me answering at work and the other was me from my ipad? Not sure if that is why it occured but it was not done to somehow confuse anyone.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 03:21 AM

The answer given is accurate and explains fully why we use cardiac CRP. mac seemed to think there is no clinical rationale for its use. This link shows why it is done. Research meeting clinical medicine does occur here.

04293f705870e1837b8670d3c1cd5f67

(2261)

on March 05, 2011
at 02:35 AM

That is a very scientific answer!

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 05, 2011
at 04:13 PM

Calling thrombaxanes anti-inflammatory is accurate? Sadly, Dr. K this debate disintegrates. I too have both formal and informal medical and research training. Jargon won't hide the other flaws in your answers. We're talking about people's health- the bar for discourse is set high.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 06, 2011
at 03:21 PM

My oath is to do no harm......and I dont. If you dont get it I dont worry because you are not someone who is my patient. You are here to discuss read and improve your former self just like I am. We can all learnfrom one another if we are open to it. We can agree to disagree but the bottom line is Cardiac CRP is a very useful clinical tool and one that is under utilized by most of my collegues. The more time that elapses the more you will see this test mentioned. It is the best way to assess the inflamamtory cytokines in our cells and mitochondria.

Fa6e406ab332eb3a229fa58181ad21d0

(0)

on March 05, 2011
at 02:52 AM

This "Dr. K" answer was cut-and-pasted from: http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/eicosanoids.html (I've seen other people busting this Dr. K guy on other threads and was happy to find this particular one so that I could bust him too!)

0
Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:16 PM

Depends if there is pre existing inflammation......that is why getting a cardiac CRP when you start and vit D status is vital because without this info you really dont know if sat fat will hurt or help you. You also should in my view as a doc get your omega 6/3 ratios checked too because many of us believe that the omega 6 levels are critical and often more critical in the inflammatory cascade. If your Cardiac crp is below one I see no issues with saturated fats at all..........if they are not......yu need to focus on reducing your inflamamtion before you go pedal to the metal paleo......that is how I handle myself and my patients. Cardiac CRP is a direct measure of how leaky our mitochondria are.......the more leaky we are the sicker and more cancer we get and the more apoptosis our organs see due to aging and AGE's and ALE's.........The story is not as cut and dry as many in our paleo community seem to think. Once your healthy sat fat poses no issues. Infact stearic acid, which is saturated fat, actually lowers your cholesterol.

0adda19045a3641edac0008364b91110

(1146)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:45 PM

Could you explain to me how exactly is it that saturated fat becomes dangerous when inflammation is present? I thought saturated fat was antinflammatory? Resources??

0bc6cbb653cdc5e82400f6da920f11eb

(19245)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:22 PM

Too many ..........'s

A5ead9de259ae72f2165ecb12f4ae764

(440)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:29 PM

Thanks for the info Dr. K. I'll keep it mind with my next blood panel.

21fd060d0796fdb8a4a990441e08eae7

(24543)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:38 PM

Broad based recommendations coupled with grammar and spelling errors do not generally add up to reliable advice.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:16 AM

I think you need to read a bit more about mitochondrial apoptosis and why it occurs. It is precisely do to the location and proximity of the leakiest of the cytochromes in the mitochondrial membrane and it degrades its membrane and that of the nucleus. This has been known for three decades and has formed the new beliefs of mitochondrial aging. As for the cardiac CRP. It appears you dont get it. Its a PROXY for the amount of inflammation in the mitochondria. That is why cardiologist measure it. If above 3 you get worked up and have very high cardiac risks

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:07 AM

The first cytochrome in the mitochondria is always located adjacent to the mitochondrial DNA and the more leaky this membrane the more oxidative damage occurs in the cell. The more oxidative damage leads to higher levels of NF kappa beta, IL 2 and 6, and TNF. These chemicals are all the transducer proteins of the pathways previosuly mentioned. They also are critical to apoptosis pathways, and is the signalling for mitochondrial turnover and the aging of the cell. I hope this clears up your issues. As for practicing medicine here I am not. These discussions are for education and discussion

Af1d286f0fd5c3949f59b4edf4d892f5

(18472)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:26 PM

mac's questions are valid.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 03, 2011
at 08:06 PM

I dont have another profile? And when I get home I would be glad to explain the Cardiac CRP issue as a marker of mitochondria inflammation.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:21 AM

'Long-chain saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid induce insulin resistance and NF-kappaB activation in skeletal muscle cells'in "Trans Fatty Acid-Induced NF-kappaB Activation Does Not Induce Insulin Resistance in Cultured Murine Skeletal Muscle Cells" Lipids, february 2010

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:02 AM

It give us clinicians a way to quickly assess and the two major arms of disease.....namely the inflammtory process and the immune system. The Fire and Water of the body. Once this base line is assessed then we delve deeper into the specific issues that the patient needs call for. Prior to Ultra sensitive CRP we used a regular CRP which is not specific and not sensitive. the ultra sensitive CRP is not specific but much more sensitive especially at the cytochrome level of mitochindria. We know that the higher the cardiac CRP the more Leaky mitochindria are at the first cytochrome.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 04, 2011
at 03:25 PM

@Dr. K: One thing I cannot let go: "the first cytochrome in the mitochondria is always located adjacent to the mitochondrial DNA." You are aware that the cytochrome complexes in oxidative phosphorylation are on the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is still quite far from the mitochondrial DNA, some of which is actually in the cell's nucleus.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 01:58 AM

Ok....dont understand the profile thing and I am home now. The Cardiac CRP and vitamin D levels are proxies for mitochondrial inflammation and the level of antioxidents that effect the many pathways in the body. For example the mTor pathwayand the Nrf2 pathway is another. We all know that glutiathione is the bodies main antioxident but there are hundreds of others. What is now clear is that the Vit D receptor is "the swtich" for the immune system and a proxy for the majority of antioxidents. Kind of like Pareto's law for the thousands.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 06:15 PM

@Dr.K: Please correct me if I'm wrong, but what are you trying to pull? You had one profile up claiming you were a neurosurgeon and age-management doc- on odd combination. And when I posted that you shouldn't be giving medical advice over the Internet, you made a new profile that contains no mention of medical credentials except that implied by your name.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 03, 2011
at 05:53 PM

@Dr. K: I hate to push the issue but you give the same recommendation (get a cardiac CRP) for everything without justification. Furthermore, I don't understand the clinical rationale supporting answer. In fact some things are at best slips of the tongue but may betray a more serious ignorance. Stearic acid is not a saturated fat but a fatty acid that is a component of some saturated fats, mostly those in chocolate & ground beef.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 02:24 AM

the more inflammed you are the worse sat fats can be. If your levels are low whch most paleo people are its a dead issue. Just like everything else with patients their diseases and their issues are a continuum and a process. It does not fit into a neat little box that explains all people regardless of their independent variables. I think this is pretty basic understanding of most healthcare professionals and one that seems lost on followers of a zeitgeist. Their is no dogma even in paleo. You have to keep questioning all beliefs based upon the science as its published.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 04, 2011
at 03:22 PM

@ Dr.K: I am flummoxed. I don't follow your logic, use of cited material, or interpretation of the science. Anyone can mention molecules and pathways ad nauseam. Why does CARDIAC CRP tell you about inflammation throughout the body? I think it is prudent not to be dogmatic, especially with incomplete dogma. I think it is dangerous to wade into complex science with platitudes and what seems to be a dilettante's understanding masquerading as that of a concerned expert.

4e40d2b9e1a762949a25b958762aa10d

(762)

on March 04, 2011
at 03:22 PM

@Dr. K: To prevent this exchange from degrading further, I suggest you post your explanation of the the use of Cardiac CRP here or, say on Wikipedia. Peer criticism is invaluable in refining one's thoughts.

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 04, 2011
at 04:01 AM

Dr. Mary Enig Ph.D is in favor of saturated fat. See her studies all over the WPF site... Dr. Suzanne Craft Ph.D is not. She studies how insulin resistance plays a role in developing Alzheimer's. http://www.hbo.com/alzheimers/supplementary-the-connection-between-insulin-and-alzheimers.html She says that consuming saturated fat causes a rise in insulin. The story is not clear as yet. And that is the point. As a clinician I have to not be dogmatic and way all options and go with the best available advise that is out there. If you think this is dangerous, fine. I think its prudent

Ed71ab1c75c6a9bd217a599db0a3e117

(25472)

on March 05, 2011
at 01:18 AM

If you have high cardiac risks you risks of other diseases like CVA, liver disease, obesity, organ failure, AD, depression etc go up up up up. Its not that difficult to get. But you dont and I see that. I cant teach it to you but if you keep reading you will see how we use it in clinical medicine. Its as common a screening test now as an EKG or a stress test.

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