4

votes

Is nzt-48 (limitless pill) just pure cholesterol?

Answered on September 12, 2014
Created January 01, 2013 at 7:32 PM

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, research was pointing to an unknown compound made by glial cells that was responsible for the ability of neurons to form synapses, or connections between each other.

Thoughts, memories, learning, and all mental function is dependent on the formation of synapses, so the ability to form them will directly impact mental functioning and health.

In the absence of this-- as yet unknown-- "glial factor," neurons formed few synapses, and the synapses they formed were inefficient and poorly functioning. In the presence of glial cells, which secrete the unknown factor, neurons formed many, highly efficient synapses.

So what is this "glial factor"?

Research in 2001, by Mauch, et al., published in volume 294 of Science magazine, determined that the unknown glial factor is cholesterol, which is released by the glial cells in a carrier called "apolipoprotein E."5

Initially, the researchers thought that the apolipoprotein E (apoE) may have been the glial factor itself. But it turned out that when neurons were treated with apoE, the beneficial effects on synapse formation were not observed.

The researchers then reasoned that, since apoE fit the bill in some ways, but did not have the desired effect, some of the lipids it carried may have been the elusive glial factor.

As it turned out, treating the neurons with a 10 mcg/mL solution of cholesterol increased synapse formation by 12 times! Other lipids, carried by apoE, such as phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, did not have a significant effect, and were even toxic to the neurons at very high doses.

On the other hand, when low-cholesterol glial secretions were produced by using the cholesterol-lowering drug, mevastatin, the effect of the glial secretion on synapse formation was strongly diminished. When cholesterol was added back to the low-cholesterol secretion, the positive effect on synapse formation was fully restored.

The authors identified cholesterol as a limiting factor of synpase formation. In other words, the need for cholesterol in the brain is large enough relative to the supply of cholesterol that the availability of cholesterol can directly limit the ability to form synapses.

The above is from http://www.cholesterol-and-health.com/Memory-And-Cholesterol.html

Statins cause cognitive impairment http://www.peoplespharmacy.com/2012/03/01/new-warnings-on-statins/ .

Vegans have lower IQs than SAD dieters http://www.standard.co.uk/news/vegetarians-are-more-intelligent-says-study-7082629.html .

Treating neurons with a solution of cholesterol increased synapse formation 12-fold. Cholesterol is a/the? Limiting factor for synapse formation which is responsible for all mental function.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on March 27, 2013
at 02:21 PM

Point taken, thanks for your input.

72cf727474b8bf815fdc505e58cadfea

on March 27, 2013
at 02:07 PM

Note that speeding up synapse formation is not necessarily good. You want to form the *right* synapses and prune the ones that aren't right. You probably don't want indiscriminate twelvefold synapse formation all over your brain, unless you're into schizophrenia, synesthesia, and epilepsy. Not saying that cholesterol isn't a good thing, but as always you need to be careful interpreting in vitro studies.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:49 PM

I'd really like to see that study too.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:14 PM

And as to the lower IQ vegans, I think creatine, zinc, and vitamin B12 are all common nutrients low in animal product free diets which have shown to be important to intelligence. It could be the cholesterol, but it could be those nutrients. I'd really like to see a study test intelligence after giving subjects cholesterol supplements. This seems unlikely given current paradigms, but I've been surprised before.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:10 PM

I guess I'm just hesitant to assume these effects are due to cholesterol, because the controlled studies I'm aware of (e.g. by Reichman) used egg whites versus egg yolks, which introduces a few confounding nutrients (like retinol and vitamin D), both which have hormonal effects which may explain the strength and mass gains.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:06 PM

Yeah, I agree there does seem to be evidence of cholesterol increasing strength and this does seem to contradict the opinion in my first sentence (though not necessarily). Interestingly enough, that cholesterol study on the children found the higher sat fat/cholesterol group were better at a test of jumping up and down on one foot, which seems to involve muscles. But this may have been due to chance.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:49 PM

Also, what do you think about that article I cited where it showed vegans have an average iq of 95? while the general population/sad dieters were at 100? I theorize that it's because they lack adequate cholesterol, but in reality it could probably be a million other things causing that.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:47 PM

increasing serum cholesterol. The rabbit study you gave is really interesting, I definitely +1'ed your answer as I really appreciate your time in looking up some studies and really adding something. After reading Masterjohn's article I really wanted to try injecting cholesterol into my head, lol, though that's probably the worst idea ever. I also agree that you're right in that cholesterol is found in nutrient dense foods like caviar, eggs, organ meats, etc.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:45 PM

I'm aware that dietary cholesterol has only a very acute effect on serum cholesterol in most people, however, as the excerpt from C. Masterjohn says, cholesterol is the limiting factor in synapse formation, and that "treating the neurons with a 10 mcg/mL solution of cholesterol increased synapse formation by 12 times". Also, check this out, http://www.ergo-log.com/cholesterolmuscles.html , muscle gains in elderly were directly positively correlated in a dose dependent manner with dietary cholesterol. So this shows that increased dietary cholesterol can effect people even without necessarily

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 09:11 PM

I sincerely doubt crystal meth would have a positive effect on synapse formation, like cholesterol does (12 fold). Serious answers please.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 09:09 PM

@Roth, I don't think this answer addresses my question in any meaningful way, I'm not making the argument that vegetarians or anorexics have high iqs, and the only reason I quoted that one article was to show that vegans have a LOWER iq than sad dieters, imo, because of a lack of cholesterol.

Ebb10603524dd22621c1155dd7ddf106

(19150)

on January 02, 2013
at 03:18 PM

@Roth - consider annotating the quote, so people know which article it's from. Also, maybe reorganize or make clear where your being fatuous and serious, as I agree with you, but this answer read a bit funny. Still, +1.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 02, 2013
at 11:10 AM

"However, vegans - vegetarians who also avoid dairy products - scored significantly lower, averaging an IQ score of 95" this is the quote I was talking about. Vegans, unlike vegetarians and sad dieters don't get any dietary cholesterol.

3327924660b1e2f8f8fc4ca27fedf2b2

(2919)

on January 01, 2013
at 07:54 PM

No, it's crystal meth.

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3 Answers

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2
A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:18 PM

A common view among scientists seems to be that most people have a functioning mevalonate pathway and eating cholesterol has little effect on the blood levels of or the cellular utilization of cholesterol.

I looked for studies on cholesterol feeding and intelligence and found a few interesting ones by Bernard Schreurs on rabbits. His description of some of these:

"...we were surprised to find that rabbits fed cholesterol for eight weeks showed improved trace classical conditioning and reflex facilitation of the NMR (Schreurs et al., 2003) and that these facilitating effects of cholesterol were a function of the concentration (Schreurs et al., 2007b) and duration of the cholesterol diet (Schreurs et al., 2007a). These facilitating effects were generalized beyond NMR conditioning because an eight-week, 2% cholesterol diet also facilitated rabbit heart rate conditioning ??? an index of conditioned fear (Schreurs et al., 2007c)".

On the other hand, however, there was a randomized controlled trial on 1076 infants from age 7 months to 5 years which gave nutritional counseling to parents so half of the children were raised on lower saturated fat and cholesterol diets.

By the end of the trial there were no significant differences in the pass/fail rates of intelligence tests between both groups. Take that as you will.

I think I'm leaning towards to view that cholesterol is found in a number of healthy foods and plays really important roles in the body, but most people probably won't see mental health benefits solely from eating it.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:06 PM

Yeah, I agree there does seem to be evidence of cholesterol increasing strength and this does seem to contradict the opinion in my first sentence (though not necessarily). Interestingly enough, that cholesterol study on the children found the higher sat fat/cholesterol group were better at a test of jumping up and down on one foot, which seems to involve muscles. But this may have been due to chance.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:14 PM

And as to the lower IQ vegans, I think creatine, zinc, and vitamin B12 are all common nutrients low in animal product free diets which have shown to be important to intelligence. It could be the cholesterol, but it could be those nutrients. I'd really like to see a study test intelligence after giving subjects cholesterol supplements. This seems unlikely given current paradigms, but I've been surprised before.

A2c38be4c54c91a15071f82f14cac0b3

(12682)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:10 PM

I guess I'm just hesitant to assume these effects are due to cholesterol, because the controlled studies I'm aware of (e.g. by Reichman) used egg whites versus egg yolks, which introduces a few confounding nutrients (like retinol and vitamin D), both which have hormonal effects which may explain the strength and mass gains.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 11:49 PM

I'd really like to see that study too.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:45 PM

I'm aware that dietary cholesterol has only a very acute effect on serum cholesterol in most people, however, as the excerpt from C. Masterjohn says, cholesterol is the limiting factor in synapse formation, and that "treating the neurons with a 10 mcg/mL solution of cholesterol increased synapse formation by 12 times". Also, check this out, http://www.ergo-log.com/cholesterolmuscles.html , muscle gains in elderly were directly positively correlated in a dose dependent manner with dietary cholesterol. So this shows that increased dietary cholesterol can effect people even without necessarily

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:47 PM

increasing serum cholesterol. The rabbit study you gave is really interesting, I definitely +1'ed your answer as I really appreciate your time in looking up some studies and really adding something. After reading Masterjohn's article I really wanted to try injecting cholesterol into my head, lol, though that's probably the worst idea ever. I also agree that you're right in that cholesterol is found in nutrient dense foods like caviar, eggs, organ meats, etc.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 10:49 PM

Also, what do you think about that article I cited where it showed vegans have an average iq of 95? while the general population/sad dieters were at 100? I theorize that it's because they lack adequate cholesterol, but in reality it could probably be a million other things causing that.

1
3327924660b1e2f8f8fc4ca27fedf2b2

(2919)

on January 02, 2013
at 09:07 AM

"A study of thousands of men and women revealed that those who stick to a vegetarian diet have IQs that are around five points higher than those who regularly eat meat."

Anorexics consistently score higher than their non eating disordered counterparts in IQ tests.

MOST anorexics are vegetarians. I'm willing to bet most vegetarians are anorexics too, whether or not they admit that is up to them.

So they're not smarter because they're vegetarians/vegans, they're smarter because they're anorexic. (I'm being facetious, btw, but it is true that most vegetarians I've met have been more intelligent than the average meat-eating person and also have disordered eating habits and are prone to drug abuse.)

The reason vegetarians are "smarter" is because smart people are more likely to eat healthier because they appreciate the merit that living a healthy lifestyle has. Unfortunately, even smart people can be wrong. I think I'm relatively intelligent, but being a vegetarian was a HUUUUGE mistake. I was stupid and naive back then and I did not do proper research. I came to the logical (or so I thought) conclusion that vegetarianism was the best thing for everyone on planet Earth. I was incorrect, but it was my intelligence that drove me to vegetarianism. I knew that eating healthy was obviously healthy.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 02, 2013
at 11:10 AM

"However, vegans - vegetarians who also avoid dairy products - scored significantly lower, averaging an IQ score of 95" this is the quote I was talking about. Vegans, unlike vegetarians and sad dieters don't get any dietary cholesterol.

Ebb10603524dd22621c1155dd7ddf106

(19150)

on January 02, 2013
at 03:18 PM

@Roth - consider annotating the quote, so people know which article it's from. Also, maybe reorganize or make clear where your being fatuous and serious, as I agree with you, but this answer read a bit funny. Still, +1.

Cb9a270955e2c277a02c4a4b5dad10b5

(10989)

on January 11, 2013
at 09:09 PM

@Roth, I don't think this answer addresses my question in any meaningful way, I'm not making the argument that vegetarians or anorexics have high iqs, and the only reason I quoted that one article was to show that vegans have a LOWER iq than sad dieters, imo, because of a lack of cholesterol.

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