3

votes

where do the calories go?

Answered on August 19, 2014
Created November 20, 2011 at 11:25 AM

Some people eat vastly more calories than others. If this discrepancy was converted totally to body fat over a 10 year period, even allowing for some increased energy expenditure, these people would end up as big as a house. But clearly they don't. Mostly. So my question is: where does that excess energy go?

6b365c14c646462210f3ef6b6fecace1

(1784)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:28 PM

lol you're funny

6b365c14c646462210f3ef6b6fecace1

(1784)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:24 PM

way to give the obvious answer.

Af005ec9a8e028f2b04bf5367b64e0d6

(2797)

on November 21, 2011
at 03:58 PM

it's science...

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 02:46 PM

Yeah, UCP3 gets downregulated in endurance trained people because they become get better at burning fat and so less is stuck hanging around the mitochondria. So as the leptin rx helps people go from sugar burners to fat burners these would get downregulated, although they should be working more efficiently due to LS. Also, that is assuming people who were sugar burners had proper function of their UCP3s, which is questionable. UCP1 is a different story, and I believe that it's main purpose is in fact thermogenesis.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:16 AM

Umm, so that answer is just for UPC3 actually. Because as I understand it, it is more of a helper to the mitochondria to keep it from being damaged and increasing its capacity than just throwing away energy as heat. I'm not sure about the ones that just throw energy away. Probably. I would have to look up the specifics of heat generation in the BAT, and it's way too late for that! Heh.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:04 AM

becoming leptin resistant makes you eat less and you don't burn anymore because you are eating so much less. And sometimes becoming leptin resistant makes you want to go for a run when you wouldn't have otherwise, but if all of that was controlled then becoming leptin resistant, if we're actually right about all of this, would increase respiratory quotients. That's just my reasoning, it makes sense to me! Obviously.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:03 AM

I had the same reaction when looking at this stuff back when I did, it is just so nice to see a bunch of scientists collaborate on a project to explain how and why this all works, and it seems to have direct implications for how we live our lives. Science for the win. --- You're probably more familiar with this than I am. It is hard to say that respiratory quotients would be a perfect measure. Even if some of the energy from the fatty acids doesn't go to ATP, more fatty acids will be being oxidized, and the Co2 will be eliminated. But you would have to control calories and activity. Sometimes

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:50 AM

Do you think measuring respiratory quotients would be a reasonable way to tell if a person has become more leptin sensitive and has upregulated their UCPs? Or would the uncoupling not register on the breath test because those fats aren't being used to make ATP?

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:47 AM

Do you think measuring respiratory quotients would be a reasonable way to tell if a person has become more leptin sensitive and has upregulated their UCPs?

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:43 AM

Also, Schrauwen and Hesselink published papers in 2002,2003,2004 and you can see their ideas evolving over that time. Pretty fun to see modern science in action! ha

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:41 AM

Thanks Stabby! I have that seen study, though I have not yet read Mastering Leptin so I've literally just ordered it on amazon! What I've found so fascinating about the UCPs is reading through the studies chronologically from the late 90s til now you can see the evolution of the various ideas. From Gong, 1997 "The impressive increase in muscle UCP3 mRNA upon starvation and decrease upon refeeding were unexpected observations; because energy expenditure is decreased in starvation, we had expected UCP3 levels to drop." They hadn't yet figured out the role of removing fats from the mitochondria.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:29 AM

Great summary. In the book Mastering Leptin it says that leptin and T3 regulate UPC3 and when the proper functioning of leptin breaks down then it doesn't work as well anymore because leptin isn't going where it needs to. The reference is here http://www.jbc.org/content/272/39/24129.long "This induction of UCP3 by leptin in muscle and BAT presumably explains some of leptin’s thermogenic effect." also talks about T3 which is also lower in the case of leptin resistance. So if Quilt's leptin reset resets leptin sensitivity then Beth and Loon's observations all add up and Byron Richards is right

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:28 AM

Great summary. In the book Mastering Leptin it says that leptin and T3 regulate UPC3 and when the proper functioning of leptin breaks down then it doesn't work as well anymore because leptin isn't going where it needs to. The reference is here jbc.org/content/272/39/24129.long "This induction of UCP3 by leptin in muscle and BAT presumably explains some of leptin’s thermogenic effect." also talks about T3, which is also lower in the case of leptin resistance. So if Quilt's leptin reset resets leptin sensitivity then Beth and Loon's observations all add up and Byron Richards is right.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:26 AM

Great summary. In the book Mastering Leptin it says that leptin and T3 regulate UPC3 and when the proper functioning of leptin breaks down then it doesn't work as well anymore because leptin isn't going where it needs to. The reference is here http://www.jbc.org/content/272/39/24129.long "This induction of UCP3 by leptin in muscle and BAT presumably explains some of leptin’s thermogenic effect." also talks about T3, which is also lower in the case of leptin resistance. So if Quilt's leptin reset resets leptin sensitivity then Beth and Loon's observations all add up.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 21, 2011
at 01:50 AM

But people like me and animalcule (see her answer here) are both fidgeters *and* heat-producers.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 01:28 AM

That is interesting Paul, to play devil's advocate here, I wonder if the fidgeting is a result of poor UCP function. Maybe the fat can't uncouple and so the surplus energy has to be fidgeted away? I suppose this is along the same lines of thinking as questioning whether someone is fat because they overeat or if they overeat because they're fat (and metabolically deranged)

26b7615ef542394102785a67a2786867

(7967)

on November 21, 2011
at 12:56 AM

Sounds like me and my daddy - though he does not have diabetes thank goodness, but then he always ate a decent diet thanks to my mom and does not have a sweet tooth. We both have a freakishly high alcohol tolerance despite being tiny and lean.

0ad4ed16f0afccc544f92e51945482f7

(55)

on November 20, 2011
at 10:18 PM

Interesting answer, thanks. I'm guessing that heat production is largely it. Does that mean that some people should be hotter than others? I wonder how many extra calories you burn in 1 hour to be, say, 0.1C hotter than normal. Or whether you can give a fat person vs. a thin person a sugar load and see an effect in terms of body temperature.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:42 PM

Paul and Beth - Yeah I'm not 100% certain, but it seems to make sense according to the research, and anecdotally I've found similar things happening

7dc950fc76a046048e683d2a27dced37

on November 20, 2011
at 08:33 PM

Interesting! I've been experiencing the heat after meals (not such large meals) in the evening. Makes me wonder though if that's a clue that those are unneeded calories.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:24 PM

Cool. Maybe this doesn't surprise you but I ask because I'm one of those people who 1. eats a lot but stays thin and 2. frequently sweats in his sleep, even when the room isn't particularly hot.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:15 PM

The functions of UCP2 and UCP3 have really been much more understood in the past 10 years, so the studies from the 90s may have some limitations in their conclusions.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:14 PM

Paul - studies seem conflicted but I think it hasn't been studies enough, from the Schrauwen 2002 review: "We observed a positive correlation between sleeping metabolic rate and 24 h energy expenditure and the expression of UCP3 mRNA in Pima Indians (Schrauwen et al., 1999b). The lack of similar relationships in other studies (Bao et al., 1998) might be due to genetic difference between the populations studied. In this regard, it is important to note that sleeping metabolic rate in Pima Indians is a strong predictor of weight gain (Ravussin et al., 1988)."

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:19 PM

Paul - I haven't yet found a good study regarding sleep and UCPs, Quilt of course talks about it in his Oprah post but I'm still in the process of finding the papers to link it all together.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:16 PM

Loon - thanks, and I agree that Quilt's reset will do this. I'm still trying to find all of the literature to prove it and test it but I think it's huge!

96bf58d8c6bd492dc5b8ae46203fe247

(37227)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:08 PM

Very cool! Thanks for the link, Paul.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:03 PM

Hey Nance, check out this question of mine: http://paleohacks.com/questions/27036/have-you-always-had-an-enormous-appetite-do-you-know-why#axzz1e3KDTl9e but check it out mostly for David Moss's answer and the link therein. Very cool.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 20, 2011
at 06:57 PM

Yes, this is awesome, thanks Jeff. Was there one paper in particular that talked about the sleep thing, that the process might take place in particular when we sleep, I mean?

96bf58d8c6bd492dc5b8ae46203fe247

(37227)

on November 20, 2011
at 06:04 PM

Thanks, Olivia! Unless there's a critical comment, I'm learning to disregard the minuses. It's about the voter, not me.

7d0c3ea9bf8be00b93e6433d8f125ac3

(7540)

on November 20, 2011
at 05:30 PM

Jeez, why was this downvoted? It's a great answer.

8949bf87b0e0aefcad10f29975e4fa2b

(8989)

on November 20, 2011
at 05:20 PM

Some folks doing the leptin reset have noticed a huge increase in heat after a large meal. For people who used to just gain weight by looking at food, the renewed function of the uncoupling proteins is a welcome sign that their metabolisms are starting to function like thin people.

8949bf87b0e0aefcad10f29975e4fa2b

(8989)

on November 20, 2011
at 05:15 PM

Fantastic answer!!!

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9 Answers

26
664efb0a77ab70435f580d6867afa0fa

(544)

on November 20, 2011
at 03:01 PM

God is keeping track and they will be fat in the afterlife.

Af005ec9a8e028f2b04bf5367b64e0d6

(2797)

on November 21, 2011
at 03:58 PM

it's science...

6b365c14c646462210f3ef6b6fecace1

(1784)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:24 PM

way to give the obvious answer.

20
64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 04:44 PM

We have things called uncoupling proteins(UCP). There are 5 that have been identified, UCP-1,UCP-2, etc. UCP-1 is present in brown fat and it's what hibernating animals use to keep warm.

Normally, in the mitochondria the ADP is phosphorylated by the electron transport chain and makes ATP (the body's energy currency) and some heat. These UCPs allow this to become 'uncoupled' from ATP production and dissipate completely as heat. This can happen while we sleep and I think explains why some people (like myself) can overeat and wake up really hot and sweaty during the night, and lose up to 4-5 lbs during sleep.

Roles of these proteins are still being discovered/hypothesized. Here are some excerpts from the scientific literature:

  • At least in rodents, UCP1 seems to be solely responsible for the increase in energy expenditure after cold exposure and sympathetic stimulation. UCP2 and UCP3 are able to uncouple respiration from ATP production and, even though their primary function is not the regulation of energy metabolism, they might still influence energy expenditure as a secondary effect of their physiological function. Several putative functions have been postulated, amongst which are the prevention of ROS production, the regulation of the [ATP]:[ADP] ratio and the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid anion export. (Schrauwen and Hesselink 2002)

  • In conclusion, it is suggested that UCP3 has an important physiological function in facilitating outward transport from the mitochondrial matrix of fatty acid anions that cannot be oxidized, thereby protecting against lipid-induced mitochondrial damage.(Schrauwen and Hesselink 2004)

  • T3 increases mitochondrial respiration and promotes, in rodents, the uncoupling between oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis. (Barbe et al. 2001)

  • These experiments demonstrate that UCP3 is regulated differently in muscle as compared with BAT and suggest that thyroid hormone is a physiologic regulator of UCP3 but not of UCP2... Muscle UCP3 levels were unchanged in ob/ob mice, but leptin treatment of ob/ob mice caused an increase in UCP3 mRNA levels. Muscle UCP2 levels were constant in the three groups. In BAT, both UCP3 and UCP1 were low in ob/ob mice and increased with leptin treatment(Gong et al. 1997).

  • UCP-2 and UCP-3 Proteins Are Differentially Regulated in Pancreatic Beta-Cells... Both UCP-2 and UCP-3 prevent the reactive oxygen species formation and therefore protect living cells against oxidative stress. Furthermore, UCP-3 plays a physiological role in fatty acid metabolism by exporting fatty acids from the mitochondria. UCP-4 and UCP-5 are expressed mainly in the nervous system.... UCP-2 (and potentially other uncoupling proteins) may be important in the regulation of insulin secretion in health, and may contribute to impaired GSIS in diabetes... UCP-2 expression is increased in rodent islets in response to either chronic high glucose or free fatty acid concentration exposure and diabetic human islets.... Therefore, low UCP-3 levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes. (Li et al. 2008).

  • In addition, assuming a role for UCP2 in the regulation of ROS production, a low level of UCP2 expression would increase ROS production, which is particularly dangerous in the case of diabetes because recent data indicate that ROS production is the link between elevated glucose levels and hyperglycaemic damage... In fact, overexpression of UCP1 in endothelial cells reduced ROS production and prevented hyperglycaemic damage (Nishikawa et al., 2000).

  • Together, these tissue-dependent differential mRNA expressions of the UCP homologues in IBAT, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles during food deprivation and refeeding are much more consistent with a role for UCP2 and UCP3 in the regulation of lipids as fuel substrate rather than as mediators of regulatory thermogenesis (Samec et al. 1998).

  • We have recently shown that, in humans, 60 h of mild cold exposure reduced skeletal muscle UCP3 mRNA expression (Schrauwen et al., 2002b), excluding a major role for UCP3 in cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Another condition in which UCP3 expression does not reflect the changes in energy expenditure is fasting, during which energy expenditure drops and UCP3 mRNA expression increases both in rodents (Boss et al., 1998b) and in humans (Millet et al., 1997).

  • The fasting-induced upregulation of UCP3 and subsequent downregulation of UCP3 (below baseline levels) during refeeding provide further evidence that UCP3 is, in fact, more involved in fatty acid metabolism than in energy metabolism (Samec et al., 1999a). Also, the upregulation of UCP3 mRNA expression after acute exercise (Pilegaard et al., 2000) could be attributed to increased metabolic rate and increased fat oxidation in the post-exercise period.

Regardless of their primary functions, UCPs dissipate energy as heat and allow us to regulate our metabolic rate.

edit: for a good review of UCP3, I'd suggest this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15294045

or this for UCP2 and UCP3 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/205/15/2275.full

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:15 PM

The functions of UCP2 and UCP3 have really been much more understood in the past 10 years, so the studies from the 90s may have some limitations in their conclusions.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:14 PM

Paul - studies seem conflicted but I think it hasn't been studies enough, from the Schrauwen 2002 review: "We observed a positive correlation between sleeping metabolic rate and 24 h energy expenditure and the expression of UCP3 mRNA in Pima Indians (Schrauwen et al., 1999b). The lack of similar relationships in other studies (Bao et al., 1998) might be due to genetic difference between the populations studied. In this regard, it is important to note that sleeping metabolic rate in Pima Indians is a strong predictor of weight gain (Ravussin et al., 1988)."

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:50 AM

Do you think measuring respiratory quotients would be a reasonable way to tell if a person has become more leptin sensitive and has upregulated their UCPs? Or would the uncoupling not register on the breath test because those fats aren't being used to make ATP?

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:04 AM

becoming leptin resistant makes you eat less and you don't burn anymore because you are eating so much less. And sometimes becoming leptin resistant makes you want to go for a run when you wouldn't have otherwise, but if all of that was controlled then becoming leptin resistant, if we're actually right about all of this, would increase respiratory quotients. That's just my reasoning, it makes sense to me! Obviously.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:42 PM

Paul and Beth - Yeah I'm not 100% certain, but it seems to make sense according to the research, and anecdotally I've found similar things happening

8949bf87b0e0aefcad10f29975e4fa2b

(8989)

on November 20, 2011
at 05:20 PM

Some folks doing the leptin reset have noticed a huge increase in heat after a large meal. For people who used to just gain weight by looking at food, the renewed function of the uncoupling proteins is a welcome sign that their metabolisms are starting to function like thin people.

7dc950fc76a046048e683d2a27dced37

on November 20, 2011
at 08:33 PM

Interesting! I've been experiencing the heat after meals (not such large meals) in the evening. Makes me wonder though if that's a clue that those are unneeded calories.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:16 AM

Umm, so that answer is just for UPC3 actually. Because as I understand it, it is more of a helper to the mitochondria to keep it from being damaged and increasing its capacity than just throwing away energy as heat. I'm not sure about the ones that just throw energy away. Probably. I would have to look up the specifics of heat generation in the BAT, and it's way too late for that! Heh.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:26 AM

Great summary. In the book Mastering Leptin it says that leptin and T3 regulate UPC3 and when the proper functioning of leptin breaks down then it doesn't work as well anymore because leptin isn't going where it needs to. The reference is here http://www.jbc.org/content/272/39/24129.long "This induction of UCP3 by leptin in muscle and BAT presumably explains some of leptin’s thermogenic effect." also talks about T3, which is also lower in the case of leptin resistance. So if Quilt's leptin reset resets leptin sensitivity then Beth and Loon's observations all add up.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:19 PM

Paul - I haven't yet found a good study regarding sleep and UCPs, Quilt of course talks about it in his Oprah post but I'm still in the process of finding the papers to link it all together.

8949bf87b0e0aefcad10f29975e4fa2b

(8989)

on November 20, 2011
at 05:15 PM

Fantastic answer!!!

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:03 AM

I had the same reaction when looking at this stuff back when I did, it is just so nice to see a bunch of scientists collaborate on a project to explain how and why this all works, and it seems to have direct implications for how we live our lives. Science for the win. --- You're probably more familiar with this than I am. It is hard to say that respiratory quotients would be a perfect measure. Even if some of the energy from the fatty acids doesn't go to ATP, more fatty acids will be being oxidized, and the Co2 will be eliminated. But you would have to control calories and activity. Sometimes

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:41 AM

Thanks Stabby! I have that seen study, though I have not yet read Mastering Leptin so I've literally just ordered it on amazon! What I've found so fascinating about the UCPs is reading through the studies chronologically from the late 90s til now you can see the evolution of the various ideas. From Gong, 1997 "The impressive increase in muscle UCP3 mRNA upon starvation and decrease upon refeeding were unexpected observations; because energy expenditure is decreased in starvation, we had expected UCP3 levels to drop." They hadn't yet figured out the role of removing fats from the mitochondria.

0ad4ed16f0afccc544f92e51945482f7

(55)

on November 20, 2011
at 10:18 PM

Interesting answer, thanks. I'm guessing that heat production is largely it. Does that mean that some people should be hotter than others? I wonder how many extra calories you burn in 1 hour to be, say, 0.1C hotter than normal. Or whether you can give a fat person vs. a thin person a sugar load and see an effect in terms of body temperature.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 20, 2011
at 06:57 PM

Yes, this is awesome, thanks Jeff. Was there one paper in particular that talked about the sleep thing, that the process might take place in particular when we sleep, I mean?

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 20, 2011
at 08:24 PM

Cool. Maybe this doesn't surprise you but I ask because I'm one of those people who 1. eats a lot but stays thin and 2. frequently sweats in his sleep, even when the room isn't particularly hot.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:16 PM

Loon - thanks, and I agree that Quilt's reset will do this. I'm still trying to find all of the literature to prove it and test it but I think it's huge!

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:47 AM

Do you think measuring respiratory quotients would be a reasonable way to tell if a person has become more leptin sensitive and has upregulated their UCPs?

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 02:46 PM

Yeah, UCP3 gets downregulated in endurance trained people because they become get better at burning fat and so less is stuck hanging around the mitochondria. So as the leptin rx helps people go from sugar burners to fat burners these would get downregulated, although they should be working more efficiently due to LS. Also, that is assuming people who were sugar burners had proper function of their UCP3s, which is questionable. UCP1 is a different story, and I believe that it's main purpose is in fact thermogenesis.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:43 AM

Also, Schrauwen and Hesselink published papers in 2002,2003,2004 and you can see their ideas evolving over that time. Pretty fun to see modern science in action! ha

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:28 AM

Great summary. In the book Mastering Leptin it says that leptin and T3 regulate UPC3 and when the proper functioning of leptin breaks down then it doesn't work as well anymore because leptin isn't going where it needs to. The reference is here jbc.org/content/272/39/24129.long "This induction of UCP3 by leptin in muscle and BAT presumably explains some of leptin’s thermogenic effect." also talks about T3, which is also lower in the case of leptin resistance. So if Quilt's leptin reset resets leptin sensitivity then Beth and Loon's observations all add up and Byron Richards is right.

Be1dbd31e4a3fccd4394494aa5db256d

(17969)

on November 21, 2011
at 06:29 AM

Great summary. In the book Mastering Leptin it says that leptin and T3 regulate UPC3 and when the proper functioning of leptin breaks down then it doesn't work as well anymore because leptin isn't going where it needs to. The reference is here http://www.jbc.org/content/272/39/24129.long "This induction of UCP3 by leptin in muscle and BAT presumably explains some of leptin’s thermogenic effect." also talks about T3 which is also lower in the case of leptin resistance. So if Quilt's leptin reset resets leptin sensitivity then Beth and Loon's observations all add up and Byron Richards is right

4
96bf58d8c6bd492dc5b8ae46203fe247

(37227)

on November 20, 2011
at 04:57 PM

You're all right!

I can't speak scientifically as Jeff did, but I have observed in my 6 decades that slender people tend to be fidgety and restless so they are in motion more. They may act enthusiastic about food, but if you pay attention many of them eat very tiny portions and leave more food on their plate than they eat.

My dad, now, was 5'6" and weighed 133 lbs all the time--not 130, not 135, he definitely had a set-point of 133. He clearly had abnormal metabolism because he ate like an NFL lineman. He'd eat 2 heaping plates of food plus bread/rolls and he'd have room for dessert. He also didn't metabolize alcohol normally; he could drink a ton and never get drunk (I inherited that aspect and I don't drink because there's no buzz.) He never complained of any digestive issues until he was diagnosed with T2 diabetes in his late 50s. Even then, he ate a ton of food and stayed the same weight without any insulin--he just needed to watch his sugar intake.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 21, 2011
at 01:50 AM

But people like me and animalcule (see her answer here) are both fidgeters *and* heat-producers.

64433a05384cd9717c1aa6bf7e98b661

(15236)

on November 21, 2011
at 01:28 AM

That is interesting Paul, to play devil's advocate here, I wonder if the fidgeting is a result of poor UCP function. Maybe the fat can't uncouple and so the surplus energy has to be fidgeted away? I suppose this is along the same lines of thinking as questioning whether someone is fat because they overeat or if they overeat because they're fat (and metabolically deranged)

96bf58d8c6bd492dc5b8ae46203fe247

(37227)

on November 20, 2011
at 06:04 PM

Thanks, Olivia! Unless there's a critical comment, I'm learning to disregard the minuses. It's about the voter, not me.

96bf58d8c6bd492dc5b8ae46203fe247

(37227)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:08 PM

Very cool! Thanks for the link, Paul.

7d0c3ea9bf8be00b93e6433d8f125ac3

(7540)

on November 20, 2011
at 05:30 PM

Jeez, why was this downvoted? It's a great answer.

47a42b6be94caf700fce9509e38bb6a4

(9647)

on November 20, 2011
at 07:03 PM

Hey Nance, check out this question of mine: http://paleohacks.com/questions/27036/have-you-always-had-an-enormous-appetite-do-you-know-why#axzz1e3KDTl9e but check it out mostly for David Moss's answer and the link therein. Very cool.

26b7615ef542394102785a67a2786867

(7967)

on November 21, 2011
at 12:56 AM

Sounds like me and my daddy - though he does not have diabetes thank goodness, but then he always ate a decent diet thanks to my mom and does not have a sweet tooth. We both have a freakishly high alcohol tolerance despite being tiny and lean.

4
E5c7f14800c5992831f5c70fa746dc5c

(12857)

on November 20, 2011
at 11:37 AM

Heat, energy or waste for the most part.

3
543a65b3004bf5a51974fbdd60d666bb

(4493)

on November 21, 2011
at 04:57 AM

BBC TV showed a 1 hour documentary a while back called "Why Are Thin People not Fat". here's an overview of it: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/7838668.stm

you can find it on you-tube in 7 parts. make sure you search for "Why Are Thin People not Fat" to get the right one.

here's some text from the link above to give you an idea of what its about;

"Why, for example, do some people seem to eat what they like and not put on weight, while others limit their diet yet struggle to shed their bulk?
In 1967, a medical researcher, Ethan Sims, carried out an experiment at Vermont state prison in the US. He recruited inmates to eat as much as they could to gain 25% of their body weight, in return for early release from prison.
Some of the volunteers could not reach the target however hard they tried, even though they were eating 10,000 calories a day. Sims's conclusion was that for some, obesity is nearly impossible.
It was with this in mind that 10 slim volunteers - who were not dieters - convened in more hospitable circumstances, for a recent experiment devised by the BBC's Horizon documentary. The 10 spent four weeks gorging on as much pizza, chips, ice cream and chocolate as they could, while doing no exercise, and severely limiting the amount they walked."

i will not add anything else, as i say it was an hour long program & would not do it justice. you really have to watch it for yourself (if you have the bandwidth).

3
26b7615ef542394102785a67a2786867

on November 21, 2011
at 12:54 AM

In my case (underweight, wiry person from a thin family); I only stop moving/fidgeting when I am sleeping, and I also seem to have a great deal of brown fat which burns off 'extra' as heat rather than adding soft tissue to my frame.

I've always been skinny and hyperactive, but since eating paleo, high calorie and high fat, and healing a lot of health issues, my 'fast metabolism' is more noticeable and extreme. When I ate a shitty grain-based diet, I actually tended to be cold and had a lot of hypothyroid symtoms, but still never gained weight.

The heat I output after overeating, especially from my upper torso, is incredible - you can feel it with your hand a foot away from me sometimes. In the hotter parts of the summer I have to intentionally restrict calories, because this process will make me sweat profusely and even get heatstroke symptoms in temps when most people are comfortable.

I don't believe I have any malapsorption issues. First of all, my shit is not only normal but ideal - if you are truly not digesting food, it will show in your stool. Also I am generally healthy and look it, am never ill, and easily gain strength and endurance - just not mass, especially not fat mass.

3
93ae9f2d376e5426e891a9b58d8302fa

(2936)

on November 20, 2011
at 04:53 PM

All the little beasties at the sewage treatment plant owe us a big thanks.

6b365c14c646462210f3ef6b6fecace1

(1784)

on November 21, 2011
at 07:28 PM

lol you're funny

0
Cb47ec28052ec0304fd1489a41b8035e

on November 21, 2011
at 04:42 PM

Calories don't go.It is utilized by our system in body.To provide heat,to work, to think all these needs calories.It is also obvious that some of them are wasted.

0
Db4ad76f6f307a6f577e175710049172

on November 20, 2011
at 01:31 PM

They may be eating a lot of calories, but they're not absorbing them. I'd say that all the skinny people who eat as much as they want are passing a lot of the calories they eat through, without them being absorbed.

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