Most longevity data is not adjusted for: non obesity, lifestyle, diet, and a whole host of other factors. What, then, are the most likely causes of death for a happy, vital Paleo-lifestyle human being, and life expectancy?
Degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's?
Surely not cardiovascular diseases?
Lung cancers in urban areas?
How would this vary by cohort (current age) and duration of time having lived a Paleo lifestyle?
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Yeah, in that guardian article on causes of death, there's 3 big ones: heart disease, cancer, circulatory, and respiratory. We know/suspect that high sugar intake can effect some cancers by feeding them, and can cause heart disease through obesity and inflammation. Respiratory seems to be mostly from infections - so a good immune system is key.
We do know that artificial trans fats from industrial seed oils play a large part in CVD. Eating clean fats is certainly a key.
Most paleo folks can probably avoid lifestyle heart disease, or so we think.
A very small part of that chart indicated various frailties - osteoporosis and such. Exercise is key, not just diet, and sarcopenia can be a real danger. Our muscles save us from a lot of problems - if you're strong, your bones will be strong too.
If you have larger muscles, you can dispose of unneeded sugar as well, and you'll survive the ravages of sarcopenia longer, and have longer mobility than those who are sedentary.
Good exercise also helps keep the brain sharp, so perhaps it can help avoid dementia as well. Avoiding excess sugar exposure can help here too in terms of the preventing brain insulin resistance.
We probably can't prevent lung cancer from the environment, except to move away from large cities (and obviously avoiding smokers and smoking).
In the end we all will die of something, even if it's just old age, or falling off a cliff. We can prevent some, but not all of the causes. Certainly sabre-tooth tigers and childbirth are no longer big issues.
There is paleo and paleo. Those who eat a diet close to the Inuit, will die statistically of the same causes that get the Inuits. I do not know what got them in the old days, but I know that they were not particularly long-lived and also that their liver is substantially larger than ours, and surely 25% proteins in the course of a lifetime is not going to be good for the kidneys either. Vitamin C and other phytochemicals also were very low to non existent.
I note that all long-lived populations in the world eat large amounts of vegetables and/or fruits, which is paleo but is a certain strain of paleo. I don't think dementia is an issue though (and as you say, surely not cardiovascular), it is a clear disease of civilization. Environmental exposure is certainly a factor.